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Localizing the γ-ray emitting region in the blazar TXS 2013+370

Traianou, E. and Krichbaum, T. P. and Boccardi, B. and Angioni, R. and Rani, B. and Liu, J. and Ros, E. and Bach, U. and Sokolovsky, K. V. and Lisakov, M. M. and Kiehlmann, S. and Gurwell, M. and Zensus, J. A. (2020) Localizing the γ-ray emitting region in the blazar TXS 2013+370. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 634 . Art. No. A112. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Aims. The γ-ray production mechanism and its localization in blazars are still a matter of debate. The main goal of this paper is to constrain the location of the high-energy emission in the blazar TXS 2013+370 and to study the physical and geometrical properties of the inner jet region on sub-pc scales. Methods. TXS 2013+370 was monitored during 2002–2013 with VLBI at 15, 22, 43, and 86 GHz, which allowed us to image the jet base with an angular resolution of ≥0.4 pc. By employing CLEAN imaging and Gaussian model-fitting, we performed a thorough kinematic analysis at multiple frequencies, which provided estimates of the jet speed, orientation, and component ejection times. Additionally, we studied the jet expansion profile and used the information on the jet geometry to estimate the location of the jet apex. VLBI data were combined with single-dish measurements to search for correlated activity between the radio, mm, and γ-ray emission. For this purpose, we employed a cross-correlation analysis, supported by several significance tests. Results. The high-resolution VLBI imaging revealed the existence of a spatially bent jet, described by co-existing moving emission features and stationary features. New jet features, labeled as A1, N, and N1, are observed to emerge from the core, accompanied by flaring activity in radio/mm- bands and γ-rays. The analysis of the transverse jet width profile constrains the location of the mm core to lie ≤2 pc downstream of the jet apex, and also reveals the existence of a transition from parabolic to conical jet expansion at a distance of ∼54 pc from the core, corresponding to ∼1.5 × 106 Schwarzschild radii. The cross-correlation analysis of the broad-band variability reveals a strong correlation between the radio-mm and γ-ray data, with the 1 mm emission lagging ∼49 days behind the γ-rays. Based on this, we infer that the high energy emission is produced at a distance of the order of ∼1 pc from the jet apex, suggesting that the seed photon fields for the external Compton mechanism originate either in the dusty torus or in the broad-line region.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Krichbaum, T. P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Angioni, R.0000-0003-4571-5192
Liu, J.0000-0002-7615-7499
Ros, E.0000-0001-9503-4892
Bach, U.0000-0002-7722-8412
Kiehlmann, S.0000-0001-6314-9177
Gurwell, M.0000-0003-0685-3621
Additional Information:© 2020 E. Traianou Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society. Received 23 April 2019; Accepted 2 December 2019; Published online 19 February 2020. I would like to thank my collaborators A. Roy, S. Jorstad, A. Lobanov, V. M. Patiño Álvarez, V. Karamanavis, L. Vega-García, A.-K. Baczko, J.-Y. Kim, and I. Myserlis, for the informative and fruitful discussions. I would also like to explicitly thank E. Angelakis for his contribution and support to this work. I thank F. Schinzel as the Fermi-LAT internal referee, and the AGN group coordinators for the constructive comments. I thank the anonymous referee for useful suggestions. I thank J. M. Anderson, S. Bernhart, Y. Y. Kovalev, T. Savolainen, and P. A. Voitsik for sharing visibility data from RadioAstron. This research has made use of data obtained with the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA), which consists of telescopes operated by the MPIfR, IRAM, Onsala, Metsähovi, Yebes, the Korean VLBI Network, the Green Bank Observatory and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The VLBA is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The data were correlated at the DiFX correlator of the MPIfR in Bonn, Germany. We express our special thanks to the people supporting the observations at the telescopes during the data collection. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program (Richards et al. 2011), which is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. The RadioAstron project is led by the Astro Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association under a contract with the State Space Corporation ROSCOSMOS, in collaboration with partner organizations in Russia and other countries. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges the generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT, as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States; the Commissariat á l’Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France; the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan; and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)UNSPECIFIED
K. A. Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:magnetic fields – techniques: interferometric – galaxies: active – gamma rays: galaxies – relativistic processes – galaxies: jets
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200309-080709249
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Official Citation:Localizing the γ-ray emitting region in the blazar TXS 2013+370. E. Traianou, T. P. Krichbaum, B. Boccardi, R. Angioni, B. Rani, J. Liu, E. Ros, U. Bach, K. V. Sokolovsky, M. M. Lisakov, S. Kiehlmann, M. Gurwell and J. A. Zensus. A&A, 634 (2020) A112; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101764
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Mar 2020 20:10
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 20:10

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