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Early Ultraviolet Observations of Type IIn Supernovae Constrain the Asphericity of Their Circumstellar Material

Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Ofek, Eran O. and Liang, Jingyi and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Nugent, Peter and Yang, Yi and Cenko, S. Bradley and Sollerman, Jesper and Perley, Daniel A. and Andreoni, Igor and Barbarino, Cristina and Burdge, Kevin B. and Bruch, Rachel J. and De, Kishalay and Dugas, Alison and Fremling, Christoffer and Graham, Melissa L. and Hankins, Matthew J. and Strotjohann, Nora Linn and Moran, Shane and Neill, James D. and Schulze, Steve and Shupe, David L. and Sipőcz, Brigitta M. and Taggart, Kirsty and Tartaglia, Leonardo and Walters, Richard and Yan, Lin and Yao, Yuhan and Yaron, Ofer and Bellm, Eric C. and Cannella, Chris and Dekany, Richard and Duev, Dmitry A. and Feeney, Michael and Frederick, Sara and Graham, Matthew J. and Laher, Russ R. and Masci, Frank J. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kowalski, Marek and Miller, Adam A. and Rigault, Mickael and Rusholme, Ben (2020) Early Ultraviolet Observations of Type IIn Supernovae Constrain the Asphericity of Their Circumstellar Material. Astrophysical Journal, 899 (1). Art. No. 51. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We present a survey of the early evolution of 12 Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) at ultraviolet and visible light wavelengths. We use this survey to constrain the geometry of the circumstellar material (CSM) surrounding SN IIn explosions, which may shed light on their progenitor diversity. In order to distinguish between aspherical and spherical CSM, we estimate the blackbody radius temporal evolution of the SNe IIn of our sample, following the method introduced by Soumagnac et al. We find that higher-luminosity objects tend to show evidence for aspherical CSM. Depending on whether this correlation is due to physical reasons or to some selection bias, we derive a lower limit between 35% and 66% for the fraction of SNe IIn showing evidence for aspherical CSM. This result suggests that asphericity of the CSM surrounding SNe IIn is common—consistent with data from resolved images of stars undergoing considerable mass loss. It should be taken into account for more realistic modeling of these events.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Soumagnac, Maayane T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Nugent, Peter0000-0002-3389-0586
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Barbarino, Cristina0000-0002-3821-6144
Burdge, Kevin B.0000-0002-7226-836X
Bruch, Rachel J.0000-0001-8208-2473
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Dugas, Alison0000-0001-7344-0208
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Graham, Melissa L.0000-0002-9154-3136
Hankins, Matthew J.0000-0001-9315-8437
Strotjohann, Nora Linn0000-0002-4667-6730
Moran, Shane0000-0001-5221-0243
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Sipőcz, Brigitta M.0000-0002-3713-6337
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Tartaglia, Leonardo0000-0003-3433-1492
Walters, Richard0000-0002-1835-6078
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Cannella, Chris0000-0003-2667-7290
Dekany, Richard0000-0002-5884-7867
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Frederick, Sara0000-0001-9676-730X
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Miller, Adam A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Rigault, Mickael0000-0002-8121-2560
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Alternate Title:Early Ultra-Violet observations of type IIn supernovae constrain the asphericity of their circumstellar material
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 January 9; revised 2020 April 30; accepted 2020 May 18; published 2020 August 11. M.T.S. thanks Charlotte Ward and Eli Waxman for useful discussions. This work is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. We acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1106171. This paper uses observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Some of the data we present were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. The Liverpool Telescope, located on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, is operated by Liverpool John Moores University with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. The ACAM spectroscopy was obtained as part of OPT/2018B/011. We would like to thank occasional observers on the UW APO ZTF follow-up team, including: Eric Bellm, Zach Golkhou, James Davenport, Daniela Huppenkothen, Dino Bekte°evifá Gwendolyn Eadie, and Bryce T. Bolin. M.L.G. acknowledges support from the DIRAC Institute in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Washington. The DIRAC Institute is supported through generous gifts from the Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences, and the Washington Research Foundation. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1545949. A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the Quantum Universe I-Core program, the ISF, the BSF Transformative program, IMOS via ISA, and by a Kimmel award. This research has made use of data and/or software provided by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), which is a service of the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA/GSFC. M.T.S. acknowledges support by a grant from IMOS/ISA, the Benoziyo center for Astrophysics at the Weizmann Institute of Science. This work was in part supported by the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and the Office of High Energy Physics. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. E.O.O is grateful for the support by grants from the Israel Science Foundation, Minerva, Israeli Ministry of Science, the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation, the Weizmann Institute and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the Israel Science Foundation. C.F gratefully acknowledges support of his research by the Heising-Simons Foundation (#2018-0907). A.A.M. is funded by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Corporation, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation in support of the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program; he also receives support as a CIERA Fellow by the CIERA Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University). M.R. has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 759194 - USNAC). Software: ZTF pipeline (Masci et al. 2019), ZOGY (Zackay et al. 2016), HEAsoft (v6.26; Blackburn 1995; Blackburn et al. 1999; HEASARC 2014), IRAF (Tody 1986, 1993), Photomanip, PyDIS (Davenport et al. 2018), LRIS pipeline (Perley 2019), PhotoFit (Soumagnac et al. 2019a), Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), Scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)UNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Stockholm UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Elektronen-SynchrotronUNSPECIFIED
Humboldt UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Washington Research FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Quantum Universe I-Core programUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation2018-0907
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Northwestern UniversityUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)759194
Subject Keywords:Supernovae
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200310-124512129
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Maayane T. Soumagnac et al 2020 ApJ 899 51
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101825
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Mar 2020 20:47
Last Modified:11 Aug 2020 17:36

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