A Caltech Library Service

Mapping the structural organization of the brain in conduct disorder: replication of findings in two independent samples

Fairchild, Graeme and Toschi, Nicola and Sully, Kate and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S. and Hagan, Cindy C. and Diciotti, Stefano and Goodyer, Ian M. and Calder, Andrew J. and Passamonti, Luca (2016) Mapping the structural organization of the brain in conduct disorder: replication of findings in two independent samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57 (9). pp. 1018-1026. ISSN 0021-9630. PMCID PMC4995723.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Background: Neuroimaging methods that allow researchers to investigate structural covariance between brain regions are increasingly being used to study psychiatric disorders. Structural covariance analyses are particularly well suited for studying disorders with putative neurodevelopmental origins as they appear sensitive to changes in the synchronized maturation of different brain regions. We assessed interregional correlations in cortical thickness as a measure of structural covariance, and applied this method to investigate the coordinated development of different brain regions in conduct disorder (CD). We also assessed whether structural covariance measures could differentiate between the childhood‐onset (CO‐CD) and adolescence‐onset (AO‐CD) subtypes of CD, which may differ in terms of etiology and adult outcomes. Methods: We examined interregional correlations in cortical thickness in male youths with CO‐CD or AO‐CD relative to healthy controls (HCs) in two independent datasets. The age range in the Cambridge sample was 16–21 years (mean: 18.0), whereas the age range of the Southampton sample was 13–18 years (mean: 16.7). We used FreeSurfer to perform segmentations and applied structural covariance methods to the resulting parcellations. Results: In both samples, CO‐CD participants displayed a strikingly higher number of significant cross‐cortical correlations compared to HC or AO‐CD participants, whereas AO‐CD participants presented fewer significant correlations than HCs. Group differences in the strength of the interregional correlations were observed in both samples, and each set of results remained significant when controlling for IQ and comorbid attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence for quantitative differences in structural brain organization between the CO‐CD and AO‐CD subtypes, and supports the hypothesis that both subtypes of CD have neurodevelopmental origins.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Fairchild, Graeme0000-0001-7814-9938
Hagan, Cindy C.0000-0002-4576-7120
Additional Information:© 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Issue Online: 18 August 2016; Version of Record online: 15 June 2016; Manuscript accepted: 20 April 2016. This research was funded by Wellcome Trust grant 083140 (G.F., I.M.G.), Medical Research Council project U.1055.02.001.00001.01 (A.J.C), an Adventure in Research grant from Southampton University (G.F.F), a PhD studentship from Southampton University (K.S.), and the Betty Behrens Research Fellowship at Clare Hall, Cambridge University (L.P.). The authors dedicate this paper to the late Dr. Andy Calder who died unexpectedly in 2013. He was an inspirational and dedicated scientist who was admired and respected by all of us. E.J.S.S‐B. receives speaker fees, research funding, and conference support from Shire Pharmaceuticals; speaker fees from Janssen Cilag and Medice; book royalties from OUP and Jessica Kingsley; consultancy from Neurotech solutions, Aarhus University, Copenhagen University, and KU Leusven. All other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests in relation to this report.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Wellcome Trust083140
Medical Research CouncilU.1055.02.001.00001.01
Southampton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Cambridge UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Cortical thickness; structural covariance; conduct disorder; antisocial behavior; developmental taxonomic theory
Issue or Number:9
PubMed Central ID:PMC4995723
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200317-153241174
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Fairchild, G., Toschi, N., Sully, K., Sonuga‐Barke, E.J., Hagan, C.C., Diciotti, S., Goodyer, I.M., Calder, A.J. and Passamonti, L. (2016), Mapping the structural organization of the brain in conduct disorder: replication of findings in two independent samples. J Child Psychol Psychiatr, 57: 1018-1026. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12581
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101950
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Mar 2020 22:53
Last Modified:17 Mar 2020 22:53

Repository Staff Only: item control page