A Caltech Library Service

Cropland Carbon Uptake Delayed and Reduced by 2019 Midwest Floods

Yin, Yi and Byrne, Brendan and Liu, Junjie and Wennberg, Paul O. and Davis, Kenneth J. and Magney, Troy and Köhler, Philipp and He, Liyin and Jeyaram, Rupesh and Humphrey, Vincent and Gerken, Tobias and Feng, Sha and DiGangi, Joshua P. and Frankenberg, Christian (2020) Cropland Carbon Uptake Delayed and Reduced by 2019 Midwest Floods. AGU Advances, 1 (1). Art. No. e2019AV000140. ISSN 2576-604X. doi:10.1029/2019av000140.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

[img] PDF (Supporting Information S1) - Supplemental Material
Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

[img] PDF (Peer Review History) - Supplemental Material
Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


While large‐scale floods directly impact human lives and infrastructures, they also profoundly impact agricultural productivity. New satellite observations of vegetation activity and atmospheric CO₂ offer the opportunity to quantify the effects of such extreme events on cropland carbon sequestration. Widespread flooding during spring and early summer 2019 induced conditions that delayed crop planting across the U.S. Midwest. As a result, satellite observations of solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence from TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument and Orbiting Carbon Observatory reveal a 16‐day shift in the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis relative to 2018, along with a 15% lower peak value. We estimate a reduction of 0.21 PgC in cropland gross primary productivity in June and July, partially compensated in August and September (+0.14 PgC). The extension of the 2019 growing season into late September is likely to have benefited from increased water availability and late‐season temperature. Ultimately, this change is predicted to reduce the crop productivity in the Midwest Corn/Soy belt by ~15% compared to 2018. Using an atmospheric transport model, we show that a decline of ~0.1 PgC in the net carbon uptake during June and July is consistent with observed CO₂ enhancements of up to 10 ppm in the midday boundary layer from Atmospheric Carbon and Transport‐America aircraft and over 3 ppm in column‐averaged dry‐air mole fractions from Orbiting Carbon Observatory. This study quantifies the impact of floods on cropland productivity and demonstrates the potential of combining solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence with atmospheric CO₂ observations to monitor regional carbon flux anomalies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemData
https://co2.jpl.nasa.govRelated ItemData
https://quickstats.nass.usda.govRelated ItemData
Yin, Yi0000-0003-4750-4997
Byrne, Brendan0000-0003-0619-3045
Liu, Junjie0000-0002-7184-6594
Wennberg, Paul O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Davis, Kenneth J.0000-0002-1992-8381
Magney, Troy0000-0002-9033-0024
Köhler, Philipp0000-0002-7820-1318
He, Liyin0000-0003-4427-1438
Humphrey, Vincent0000-0002-2541-6382
Gerken, Tobias0000-0001-5617-186X
Feng, Sha0000-0002-2376-0868
DiGangi, Joshua P.0000-0002-6764-8624
Frankenberg, Christian0000-0002-0546-5857
Additional Information:© 2020 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. Issue Online: 25 March 2020; Version of Record online: 25 March 2020; Manuscript accepted: 05 February 2020; Manuscript revised: 03 February 2020; Manuscript received: 06 December 2019. Part of this research was funded by the NASA Carbon Cycle Science program (Grants NNX17AE14G and NNH16ZDA001N) and the NASA OCO‐2 Science Team (Grants 80NSSC18K0895 and NNH17ZDA001N). TROPOMI SIF data generation by P. K. and C. F. is funded by the Earth Science U.S. Participating Investigator program (Grant NNX15AH95G). Aircraft data is funded by the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT)‐America Earth Venture Suborbital mission (grant NNX15AG76G to Penn State). B. B.'s research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. V.H. was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (P400P2_180784). Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High‐End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). Data Availability Statement: TROPOMI and OCO‐2 SIF products are accessed online (at (DOI: 10.22002/D1.1347) and OCO‐2 XCO2 retrieval files are downloaded from Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( ACT‐America L2 in situ measurements can be downloaded from the ORNL DACC ( County‐level crop statistics is available at USDA NASS Quick Stats Database (
Group:Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)P400P2_180784
Subject Keywords:flood; crop; carbon cycle; SIF; TROPOM; OCO‐2
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200401-082833885
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Yin, Y., Byrne, B., Liu, J., Wennberg, P., Davis, K. J., Magney, T., et al. (2020). Cropland carbon uptake delayed and reduced by 2019 Midwest floods. AGU Advances, 1, e2019AV000140.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102224
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Apr 2020 15:44
Last Modified:01 Jun 2023 22:46

Repository Staff Only: item control page