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SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline. Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87

Roelofs, F. and Janssen, M. and Natarajan, I. and Deane, R. and Davelaar, J. and Olivares, H. and Porth, O. and Paine, S. N. and Bouman, K. L. and Tilanus, R. P. J. and van Bemmel, I. M. and Falcke, H. and Akiyama, K. and Alberdi, A. and Alef, W. and Asada, K. and Azulay, R. and Baczko, A. and Ball, D. and Baloković, M. and Barrett, J. and Bintley, D. and Blackburn, L. and Boland, W. and Bower, G. C. and Bremer, M. and Brinkerink, C. D. and Brissenden, R. and Britzen, S. and Broderick, A. E. and Broguiere, D. and Bronzwaer, T. and Byun, D. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chael, A. and Chan, C. and Chatterjee, S. and Chatterjee, K. and Chen, M. and Chen, Y. and Cho, I. and Christian, P. and Conway, J. E. and Cordes, J. M. and Crew, G. B. and Cui, Y. and De Laurentis, M. and Dempsey, J. and Desvignes, G. and Dexter, J. and Doeleman, S. S. and Eatough, R. P. and Fish, V. L. and Fomalont, E. and Fraga-Encinas, R. and Friberg, P. and Fromm, C. M. and Gómez, J. L. and Galison, P. and Gammie, C. F. and García, R. and Gentaz, O. and Georgiev, B. and Goddi, C. and Gold, R. and Gu, M. and Gurwell, M. and Hada, K. and Hecht, M. H. and Hesper, R. and Ho, L. C. and Ho, P. and Honma, M. and Huang, C. L. and Huang, L. and Hughes, D. H. and Ikeda, S. and Inoue, M. and Issaoun, S. and James, D. J. and Jannuzi, B. T. and Jeter, B. and Jiang, W. and Johnson, M. D. and Jorstad, S. and Jung, T. and Karami, M. and Karuppusamy, R. and Kawashima, T. and Keating, G. K. and Kettenis, M. and Kim, J. and Kim, J. and Kim, J. and Kino, M. and Koay, J. Y. and Koch, P. M. and Koyama, S. and Kramer, M. and Kramer, C. and Krichbaum, T. P. and Kuo, C. and Lauer, T. R. and Lee, S. and Li, Y. and Li, Z. and Lindqvist, M. and Lico, R. and Liu, K. and Liuzzo, E. and Lo, W. and Lobanov, A. P. and Loinard, L. and Lonsdale, C. and Lu, R. and MacDonald, N. R. and Mao, J. and Markoff, S. and Marrone, D. P. and Marscher, A. P. and Martí-Vidal, I. and Matsushita, S. and Matthews, L. D. and Medeiros, L. and Menten, K. M. and Mizuno, Y. and Mizuno, I. and Moran, J. M. and Moriyama, K. and Moscibrodzka, M. and Müller, C. and Nagai, H. and Nagar, N. M. and Nakamura, M. and Narayan, R. and Narayanan, G. and Neri, R. and Ni, C. and Noutsos, A. and Okino, H. and Olivares, H. and Ortiz-León, G. N. and Oyama, T. and Özel, F. and Palumbo, D. C. M. and Patel, N. and Pen, U. and Pesce, D. W. and Piétu, V. and Plambeck, R. and PopStefanija, A. and Prather, B. and Preciado-López, J. A. and Psaltis, D. and Pu, H. and Ramakrishnan, V. and Rao, R. and Rawlings, M. G. and Raymond, A. W. and Rezzolla, L. and Ripperda, B. and Rogers, A. and Ros, E. and Rose, M. and Roshanineshat, A. and Rottmann, H. and Roy, A. L. and Ruszczyk, C. and Ryan, B. R. and Rygl, K. L. J. and Sánchez, S. and Sánchez-Arguelles, D. and Sasada, M. and Savolainen, T. and Schloerb, F. P. and Schuster, K. and Shao, L. and Shen, Z. and Small, D. and Won Sohn, B. and SooHoo, J. and Tazaki, F. and Tiede, P. and Titus, M. and Toma, K. and Torne, P. and Traianou, E. and Trent, T. and Trippe, S. and Tsuda, S. and van Langevelde, H. J. and van Rossum, D. R. and Wagner, J. and Wardle, J. and Weintroub, J. and Wex, N. and Wharton, R. and Wielgus, M. and Wong, G. N. and Wu, Q. and Young, A. and Young, K. and Younsi, Z. and Yuan, F. and Yuan, Y. and Zensus, J. A. and Zhao, G. and Zhao, S. and Zhu, Z. (2020) SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline. Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 636 . Art.No. A5. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936622.

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Context. Realistic synthetic observations of theoretical source models are essential for our understanding of real observational data. In using synthetic data, one can verify the extent to which source parameters can be recovered and evaluate how various data corruption effects can be calibrated. These studies are the most important when proposing observations of new sources, in the characterization of the capabilities of new or upgraded instruments, and when verifying model-based theoretical predictions in a direct comparison with observational data. Aims. We present the SYnthetic Measurement creator for long Baseline Arrays (SYMBA), a novel synthetic data generation pipeline for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. SYMBA takes into account several realistic atmospheric, instrumental, and calibration effects. Methods. We used SYMBA to create synthetic observations for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimetre VLBI array, which has recently captured the first image of a black hole shadow. After testing SYMBA with simple source and corruption models, we study the importance of including all corruption and calibration effects, compared to the addition of thermal noise only. Using synthetic data based on two example general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) model images of M 87, we performed case studies to assess the image quality that can be obtained with the current and future EHT array for different weather conditions. Results. Our synthetic observations show that the effects of atmospheric and instrumental corruptions on the measured visibilities are significant. Despite these effects, we demonstrate how the overall structure of our GRMHD source models can be recovered robustly with the EHT2017 array after performing calibration steps, which include fringe fitting, a priori amplitude and network calibration, and self-calibration. With the planned addition of new stations to the EHT array in the coming years, images could be reconstructed with higher angular resolution and dynamic range. In our case study, these improvements allowed for a distinction between a thermal and a non-thermal GRMHD model based on salient features in reconstructed images.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Roelofs, F.0000-0001-5461-3687
Janssen, M.0000-0001-8685-6544
Deane, R.0000-0003-1027-5043
Davelaar, J.0000-0002-2685-2434
Olivares, H.0000-0001-6833-7580
Bouman, K. L.0000-0003-0077-4367
van Bemmel, I. M.0000-0001-5473-2950
Falcke, H.0000-0002-2526-6724
Alberdi, A.0000-0002-9371-1033
Azulay, R.0000-0002-2200-5393
Brinkerink, C. D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Chatterjee, K.0000-0002-2825-3590
Cho, I.0000-0001-6083-7521
Cui, Y.0000-0001-6311-4345
De Laurentis, M.0000-0002-9945-682X
Fraga-Encinas, R.0000-0002-5222-1361
Gómez, J. L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Gammie, C. F.0000-0001-7451-8935
Gold, R.0000-0003-2492-1966
Huang, C. L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Inoue, M.0000-0001-5037-3989
Issaoun, S.0000-0002-5297-921X
Kettenis, M.0000-0002-6156-5617
Koay, J. Y.0000-0002-7029-6658
Kramer, M.0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, C.0000-0002-4908-4925
Lindqvist, M.0000-0002-3669-0715
Lico, R.0000-0001-7361-2460
Liu, K.0000-0002-2953-7376
Lo, W.0000-0003-1869-2503
Loinard, L.0000-0002-5635-3345
MacDonald, N. R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mao, J.0000-0002-7077-7195
Marrone, D. P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Marscher, A. P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, I.0000-0003-3708-9611
Matthews, L. D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Medeiros, L.0000-0003-2342-6728
Mizuno, Y.0000-0002-8131-6730
Moscibrodzka, M.0000-0002-4661-6332
Nagar, N. M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Narayan, R.0000-0002-1919-2730
Neri, R.0000-0002-7176-4046
Ortiz-León, G. N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Pesce, D. W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Ramakrishnan, V.0000-0002-9248-086X
Rawlings, M. G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Rezzolla, L.0000-0002-1330-7103
Roy, A. L.0000-0002-1931-0135
Savolainen, T.0000-0001-6214-1085
Shao, L.0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Z.0000-0003-3540-8746
Won Sohn, B.0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, J.0000-0003-1938-0720
Traianou, E.0000-0002-1209-6500
Trippe, S.0000-0003-0465-1559
van Langevelde, H. J.0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, D. R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Weintroub, J.0000-0002-4603-5204
Wielgus, M.0000-0002-8635-4242
Younsi, Z.0000-0001-9283-1191
Yuan, Y.0000-0002-7330-4756
Zhao, G.0000-0002-4417-1659
Zhao, S.0000-0002-9774-3606
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 3 September 2019; Accepted 18 October 2019; Published online 03 April 2020. This work is supported by the ERC Synergy Grant “BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes” (Grant 610058). I. Natarajan and R. Deane are grateful for the support from the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa. The authors of the present paper further thank the following organizations and programmes: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496); the Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project, supported by the European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action under grant agreement 731016; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Comisión Nacional de Investigació Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT, Chile, via PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt 1171506, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007); Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects 104497, 275201, 279006, 281692); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico–Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA–UNAM, project IN112417); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) under project CIDEGENT/2018/021; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, and 107-2119-M-110-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC17K0649); NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant #HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555; the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1312651, AST-1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1715061, AST-1615796, AST-1716327, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China; the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Princeton/Flatiron Postdoctoral Prize Fellowship; the Russian Science Foundation (grant 17-12-01029); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, AYA2016-80889-P); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001)); the Italian Ministero dell’Istruzione Università e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA (CUP C52I13000140001); the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (, Calcul Quebec ( and Compute Canada ( We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00841.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrófisica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA). The IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR- 1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people. The software presented in this work makes use of the Numpy (van der Walt et al. 2011), Scipy (Jones et al. 2001), Astropy (Astropy Collaboration 2013, 2018) libraries and the KERN software bundle (Molenaar & Smirnov 2018).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)610058
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)731016
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)PIA ACT172033
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171506
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)BASAL AFB-170002
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)31140007
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)281692
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/17
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
University of BonnUNSPECIFIED
University of CologneUNSPECIFIED
National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SYS008
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Youth Thousand Talents Program of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Spinoza PrizeSPI 78-409
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Research and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01029
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)C52I13000140001
European Research Council (ERC)730562
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Subject Keywords:galaxies: nuclei – black hole physics – telescopes – atmospheric effects – techniques: high angular resolution – techniques: interferometry
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200406-090028546
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Official Citation:SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline - Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87. F. Roelofs, M. Janssen, I. Natarajan, R. Deane, J. Davelaar, H. Olivares, O. Porth, S. N. Paine, K. L. Bouman, R. P. J. Tilanus, I. M. van Bemmel, H. Falcke, K. Akiyama, A. Alberdi, W. Alef, K. Asada, R. Azulay, A. Baczko, D. Ball, M. Baloković, J. Barrett, D. Bintley, L. Blackburn, W. Boland, G. C. Bower, M. Bremer, C. D. Brinkerink, R. Brissenden, S. Britzen, A. E. Broderick, D. Broguiere, T. Bronzwaer, D. Byun, J. E. Carlstrom, A. Chael, C. Chan, S. Chatterjee, K. Chatterjee, M. Chen, Y. Chen, I. Cho, P. Christian, J. E. Conway, J. M. Cordes, G. B. Crew, Y. Cui, M. De Laurentis, J. Dempsey, G. Desvignes, J. Dexter, S. S. Doeleman, R. P. Eatough, V. L. Fish, E. Fomalont, R. Fraga-Encinas, P. Friberg, C. M. Fromm, J. L. Gómez, P. Galison, C. F. Gammie, R. García, O. Gentaz, B. Georgiev, C. Goddi, R. Gold, M. Gu, M. Gurwell, K. Hada, M. H. Hecht, R. Hesper, L. C. Ho, P. Ho, M. Honma, C. L. Huang, L. Huang, D. H. Hughes, S. Ikeda, M. Inoue, S. Issaoun, D. J. James, B. T. Jannuzi, B. Jeter, W. Jiang, M. D. Johnson, S. Jorstad, T. Jung, M. Karami, R. Karuppusamy, T. Kawashima, G. K. Keating, M. Kettenis, J. Kim, J. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kino, J. Y. Koay, P. M. Koch, S. Koyama, M. Kramer, C. Kramer, T. P. Krichbaum, C. Kuo, T. R. Lauer, S. Lee, Y. Li, Z. Li, M. Lindqvist, R. Lico, K. Liu, E. Liuzzo, W. Lo, A. P. Lobanov, L. Loinard, C. Lonsdale, R. Lu, N. R. MacDonald, J. Mao, S. Markoff, D. P. Marrone, A. P. Marscher, I. Martí-Vidal, S. Matsushita, L. D. Matthews, L. Medeiros, K. M. Menten, Y. Mizuno, I. Mizuno, J. M. Moran, K. Moriyama, M. Moscibrodzka, C. Müller, H. Nagai, N. M. Nagar, M. Nakamura, R. Narayan, G. Narayanan, R. Neri, C. Ni, A. Noutsos, H. Okino, H. Olivares, G. N. Ortiz-León, T. Oyama, F. Özel, D. C. M. Palumbo, N. Patel, U. Pen, D. W. Pesce, V. Piétu, R. Plambeck, A. PopStefanija, B. Prather, J. A. Preciado-López, D. Psaltis, H. Pu, V. Ramakrishnan, R. Rao, M. G. Rawlings, A. W. Raymond, L. Rezzolla, B. Ripperda, A. Rogers, E. Ros, M. Rose, A. Roshanineshat, H. Rottmann, A. L. Roy, C. Ruszczyk, B. R. Ryan, K. L. J. Rygl, S. Sánchez, D. Sánchez-Arguelles, M. Sasada, T. Savolainen, F. P. Schloerb, K. Schuster, L. Shao, Z. Shen, D. Small, B. Won Sohn, J. SooHoo, F. Tazaki, P. Tiede, M. Titus, K. Toma, P. Torne, E. Traianou, T. Trent, S. Trippe, S. Tsuda, H. J. van Langevelde, D. R. van Rossum, J. Wagner, J. Wardle, J. Weintroub, N. Wex, R. Wharton, M. Wielgus, G. N. Wong, Q. Wu, A. Young, K. Young, Z. Younsi, F. Yuan, Y. Yuan, J. A. Zensus, G. Zhao, S. Zhao and Z. Zhu. A&A, 636 (2020) A5. DOI:
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ID Code:102342
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Apr 2020 18:45
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:11

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