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The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. VIII. Compendium of Benchmark Objects

Gonzales, Erica J. and Crepp, Justin R. and Bechter, Eric B. and Wood, Charlotte M. and Johnson, John Asher and Montet, Benjamin T. and Isaacson, Howard and Howard, Andrew W. (2020) The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. VIII. Compendium of Benchmark Objects. Astrophysical Journal, 893 (1). Art. No. 27. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab71fb.

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The physical properties of faint stellar and substellar objects often rely on indirect, model-dependent estimates. For example, the masses of brown dwarfs are usually inferred using evolutionary models, which are age dependent and have yet to be properly calibrated. With the goal of identifying new benchmark objects to test low-mass stellar and substellar models, we have carried out a comprehensive adaptive optics survey as part of the TaRgetting bENchmark-objects with the Doppler Spectroscopy high-contrast imaging program. Using legacy radial velocity measurements from the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer at Keck, we have identified several dozen stars that show long-term Doppler accelerations. We present follow-up high-contrast observations from the campaign and report the discovery of 31 comoving companions, as well as 11 strong candidate companions, to solar-type stars with well-determined parallax and metallicity values. Benchmark objects of this nature lend themselves to orbit determinations, dynamical mass estimates, and independent compositional assessment. This compendium of benchmark objects will serve as a convenient test group to substantiate theoretical evolutionary and atmospheric models near the hydrogen fusing limit.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Gonzales, Erica J.0000-0002-9329-2190
Crepp, Justin R.0000-0003-0800-0593
Bechter, Eric B.0000-0001-8725-8730
Wood, Charlotte M.0000-0003-4773-4602
Montet, Benjamin T.0000-0001-7516-8308
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Additional Information:© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 February 13; revised 2020 January 15; accepted 2020 January 17; published 2020 April 9. We thank Greg P. Laughlin for providing an early release of the RV data that was later produced in the manuscript by Butler et al. (2017). We thank the entire CPS team for their contribution to the legacy of RVs that inspired this work. E.J.G. thanks Ian J.M. Crossfield and Andy Skemer for their critique and support during the writing process. E.J.G. and this material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. 1339067. J.R.C. acknowledges support from the NASA Early Career (NNX13AB03G) and NSF CAREER (1654125) fellowship programs. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. We are appreciative of the vision and support of the Potenziani and Wolfe families. We are grateful to the island of Hawaii and the use of the W. M. Keck Observatory on the revered mountain of Maunakea, mahalo. Facility: Keck:II - KECK II Telescope (HIRES, NIRC2).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1339067
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Astrometric binary stars ; Binary stars ; Visual binary stars ; Spectroscopic binary stars ; Direct imaging ; Brown dwarfs ; Low mass stars ; Radial velocity ; M stars
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Astrometric binary stars (79); Binary stars (154); Visual binary stars (1777); Spectroscopic binary stars (1557); Direct imaging (387); Brown dwarfs (185); Low mass stars (2050); Radial velocity (1332); M stars (985)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200409-115738652
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Erica J. Gonzales et al 2020 ApJ 893 27
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102446
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:10 Apr 2020 15:14
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:12

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