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Gaia GraL: Gaia DR2 Gravitational Lens Systems. V. Doubly-imaged QSOs discovered from entropy and wavelets

Krone-Martins, A. and Graham, M. J. and Stern, D. and Djorgovski, S. G. and Delchambre, L. and Ducourant, C. and Teixeira, R. and Drake, A. J. and Scarano, S., Jr. and Surdej, J. and Galluccio, L. and Jalan, P. and Wertz, O. and Klüter, J. and Mignard, F. and Spindola-Duarte, C. and Dobie, D. and Slezak, E. and Sluse, D. and Murphy, T. and Boehm, C. and Nierenberg, A. M. and Bastian, U. and Wambsganss, J. and LeCampion, J.-F. (2019) Gaia GraL: Gaia DR2 Gravitational Lens Systems. V. Doubly-imaged QSOs discovered from entropy and wavelets. . (Unpublished)

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The discovery of multiply-imaged gravitationally lensed QSOs is fundamental to many astronomical and cosmological studies. However, these objects are rare and challenging to discover due to requirements of high-angular resolution astrometric, multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic data. This has limited the number of known systems to a few hundred objects. We aim to reduce the constraints on angular resolution and discover multiply-imaged QSO candidates by using new candidate selection principles based on unresolved photometric time-series and ground-based images from public surveys. We selected candidates for multiply-imaged QSOs based on low levels of entropy computed from Catalina unresolved photometric time-series or Euclidean similarity to known lenses in a space defined by the wavelet power spectra of Pan-STARSS DR2 or DECaLS DR7 images, combined with multiple {\it Gaia} DR2 sources or large astrometric errors and supervised and unsupervised learning methods. We then confirmed spectroscopically some candidates with the Palomar Hale, Keck-I, and ESO/NTT telescopes. Here we report the discovery and confirmation of seven doubly-imaged QSOs and one likely double quasar. This demonstrates the potential of combining space-astrometry, even if unresolved, with low spatial-resolution photometric time-series and/or low-spatial resolution multi-band imaging to discover multiply-imaged lensed QSOs.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Graham, M. J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Stern, D.0000-0003-2686-9241
Djorgovski, S. G.0000-0002-0603-3087
Ducourant, C.0000-0003-4843-8979
Surdej, J.0000-0002-7005-1976
Wertz, O.0000-0003-3849-2285
Dobie, D.0000-0003-0699-7019
Sluse, D.0000-0001-6116-2095
Murphy, T.0000-0002-2686-438X
Additional Information:Received December 20, 2019. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Partially based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (104.A-0575). AKM acknowledges the support from the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through grants SFRH/BPD/74697/2010, PTDC/FIS-AST/31546/2017, from the Portuguese Strategic Programme UID/FIS/00099/2013 for CENTRA, from the ESA contract AO/1-7836/14/NL/HB and from the Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy for hosting research leaves during 2017-2018 and 2019, when the ideas and the codes underlying this work were initially developed. MJG, SGD and AJD acknowledge a partial support from the NSF grants AST-1413600, AST-1518308, AST-1815034, and the NASA grant 16-ADAP16-0232. AMN acknowledges support from the NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellowship. The work of DS and AMN were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. LD acknowledges support from the ESA PRODEX Programme ‘Gaia-DPAC QSOs’ and from the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office. OW was supported by the Humboldt Research Fellowship for Postdoctoral Researchers. DD is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. TM acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council through grant FT150100099. We acknowledge partial support from ‘Actions sur projet INSU-PNGRAM’, and from the Brazil-France exchange programmes Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) – Comité Français d’Évaluation de la Coopération Universitaire et Scientifique avec le Brésil (COFECUB). This work has made use of the computing facilities of the Laboratory of Astroinformatics (IAG/USP, NAT/Unicsul), whose purchase was made possible by the Brazilian agency FAPESP (grant 2009/54006-4) and the INCT-A, and we thank the entire LAi team, specially Carlos Paladini, Ulisses Manzo Castello, Luis Ricardo Manrique and Alex Carciofi for the support. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 787886). We thank Rick White from Space Telescope Science Institute for the support with the PS1DR2 images. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey was conducted at the Blanco telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) (DECaLS; NOAO Proposal ID # 2014B-0404; PIs: David Schlegel and Arjun Dey). The Legacy Surveys project is honored to be permitted to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du’ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain with particular significance to the Tohono O’odham Nation. The Australia Telescope Compact Array is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility which is funded by the Australian Government for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. This work has made use of results from the ESA space mission Gaia, the data from which were processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The Gaia mission website is: Some of the authors are members of the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)SFRH/BPD/74697/2010
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/31546/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/00099/2013
European Space Agency (ESA)AO/1-7836/14/NL/HB
Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Australian GovernmentUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilFT150100099
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)UNSPECIFIED
Comité Français d’Évaluation de la Coopération Universitaire et Scientifique avec le Brésil (COFECUB)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)2009/54006-4
European Research Council (ERC)787886
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gravitational lensing: strong, Quasars: general, Astrometry, Methods: data analysis, Catalogs, Surveys
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200414-072917417
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102518
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:14 Apr 2020 16:20
Last Modified:14 Apr 2020 16:20

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