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ZTF Early Observations of Type Ia Supernovae III: Early-Time Colors as a Test for Explosion Models and Multiple Populations

Bulla, Mattia and Miller, Adam A. and Yao, Yuhan and Dessart, Luc and Dhawan, Suhail and Papadogiannakis, Semeli and Biswas, Rahul and Goobar, Ariel and Kulkarni, S. R. and Nordin, Jakob and Nugent, Peter and Polin, Abigail and Sollerman, Jesper and Bellm, Eric C. and Coughlin, Michael W. and Dekany, Richard and Golkhou, V. Zach and Graham, Matthew J. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kupfer, Thomas and Laher, Russ R. and Masci, Frank J. and Porter, Michael and Rusholme, Ben and Shupe, David L. (2020) ZTF Early Observations of Type Ia Supernovae III: Early-Time Colors as a Test for Explosion Models and Multiple Populations. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200414-083356186

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Abstract

Colors of Type Ia supernovae in the first few days after explosion provide a potential discriminant between different models. In this paper, we present g−r colors of 38 Type Ia supernovae discovered within 3 days from first light by the Zwicky Transient Facility in 2018, a sample which is twice as large as that in the literature. We find that g−r colors are intrinsically rather homogeneous at early phases, with about half of the dispersion in the first 5 days attributable to photometric uncertainties (σ_(noise)∼σ_(int)∼0.25 mag). Colors are nearly constant starting from 5 days after first light (g−r∼−0.15 mag), while the time evolution at earlier epochs is characterized by a continuous range of slopes, from events rapidly transitioning from redder to bluer colors (slope of ∼−0.25 mag day−1) to events with a flatter evolution. The continuum in the slope distribution is in good agreement both with models requiring some amount of ⁵⁶Ni mixed in the outermost regions of the ejecta and with "double-detonation" models having thin helium layers (M_(He)=0.01M⊙) and varying carbon-oxygen core masses. At the same time, four events show evidence for a distinctive "red bump" signature predicted by "double-detonation" models with larger helium masses. We finally identify a significant correlation between the early-time g−r slopes and supernova brightness, with brighter events associated to flatter color evolution (p-value=0.001). The distribution of slopes, however, is consistent with being drawn from a single population, with no evidence for two components as claimed in the literature based on B−V colors.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.00587arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Bulla, Mattia0000-0002-8255-5127
Miller, Adam A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Biswas, Rahul0000-0002-5741-7195
Goobar, Ariel0000-0002-4163-4996
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Nugent, Peter0000-0002-3389-0586
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Additional Information:The authors are thankful to Tony Piro for sharing his models, and to Chris Ashall, Joel Johansson, Mark Magee, Keiichi Maeda and Stuart Sim for useful discussions. MB acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment funded by the Swedish National Science Foundation. A.A.M. is funded by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Corporation, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation in support of the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program; he also receives support as a CIERA Fellow by the CIERA Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University). This research was supported in part through the computational resources and staff contributions provided for the Quest high performance computing facility at Northwestern University which is jointly supported by the Office of the Provost, the Office for Research, and Northwestern University Information Technology. This work was supported in part by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1545949. SRK thanks the Heising-Simons Foundation for supporting his ZTF research. This work is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. This work was supported by the GROWTH project (Kasliwal et al. 2019) funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No 1545949. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. This work made use of the Heidelberg Supernova Model Archive (HESMA), https://hesma.h-its.org.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swedish National Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA)UNSPECIFIED
Northwestern UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1545949
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1440341
CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)UNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Stockholm UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Elektronen-SynchrotronUNSPECIFIED
Humboldt UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
TANGO ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1545949
Subject Keywords:surveys - supernovae: general
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200414-083356186
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200414-083356186
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102523
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:14 Apr 2020 15:59
Last Modified:14 Apr 2020 15:59

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