CaltechAUTHORS
  A Caltech Library Service

Anisotropies in cortical tension reveal the physical basis of polarizing cortical flows

Mayer, Mirjam and Depken, Martin and Bois, Justin S. and Jülicher, Frank and Grill, Stephan W. (2010) Anisotropies in cortical tension reveal the physical basis of polarizing cortical flows. Nature, 467 (7315). pp. 617-621. ISSN 0028-0836. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200415-085939711

[img] PDF (Supplementary Figures 1-14 with legends, Supplementary Materials and Methods, Supplementary Tables 1-2, Supplementary Notes, Text and Equations, legends for Supplementary Movies 1-14 and additional references) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

10Mb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 1. anterior COLA along the AP-axis in a polarising NMY-2::GFP Zygote ) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

4Mb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 2. posterior COLA along the AP-axis in a polarising NMY 2::GFPZygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

2165Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 3. anterior COLA along the AP-axis in an NMY-2::GFP, spd 5(RNAi) zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

4Mb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 4. posterior COLA along the AP-axis in a NMY-2::GFP, spd 5(RNAi) zygot) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

4007Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 5. anterior COLA along the AP-axis in a polarising NMY-2::GFP, ect-2(RNAi) zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

2791Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 6. anterior COLA along the AP-axis in a polarising NMY-2::GFP, rga 3(RNAi) zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

6Mb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 7. anterior COLA orthogonal to the AP-axis in a polarizing NMY- 2::GFP zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

4Mb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 8. anterior COLA orthogonal to the AP-axis in a NMY-2::GFP, spd-5(RNAi) zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

3547Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 9. anterior COLA orthogonal to the AP-axis in a NMY-2::GFP, spd-5(RNAi) zygote ) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

2833Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 10. posterior COLA orthogonal to the AP-axis in a NMY-2::GFP, spd- 5(RNAi) zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

1970Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 11. PIV of NMY-2::GFP during polarity establishment) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

6Mb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 12. posterior COLA orthogonal to the AP-axis in a polarising NMY-2::GFP zygote) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

2660Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 13. external friction, internal viscosity and the hydrodynamic length scale) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

566Kb
[img] Video (QuickTime) (Supplementary Movie 14. period of cortical flow in a GFP::MOE zygote treated with Cytochalasin D) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

2226Kb
[img] MS PowerPoint (PowerPoint slide for Fig. 1) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

477Kb
[img] MS PowerPoint (PowerPoint slide for Fig. 2) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

509Kb
[img] MS PowerPoint (PowerPoint slide for Fig. 3) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

478Kb
[img] MS PowerPoint (PowerPoint slide for Fig. 4) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

525Kb

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item: https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200415-085939711

Abstract

Asymmetric cell divisions are essential for the development of multicellular organisms. To proceed, they require an initially symmetric cell to polarize. In Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, anteroposterior polarization is facilitated by a large-scale flow of the actomyosin cortex, which directs the asymmetry of the first mitotic division. Cortical flows appear in many contexts of development, but their underlying forces and physical principles remain poorly understood. How actomyosin contractility and cortical tension interact to generate large-scale flow is unclear. Here we report on the subcellular distribution of cortical tension in the polarizing C. elegans zygote, which we determined using position- and direction-sensitive laser ablation. We demonstrate that cortical flow is associated with anisotropies in cortical tension and is not driven by gradients in cortical tension, which contradicts previous proposals. These experiments, in conjunction with a theoretical description of active cortical mechanics, identify two prerequisites for large-scale cortical flow: a gradient in actomyosin contractility to drive flow and a sufficiently large viscosity of the cortex to allow flow to be long-ranged. We thus reveal the physical requirements of large-scale intracellular cortical flow that ensure the efficient polarization of the C. elegans zygote.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09376DOIArticle
https://rdcu.be/b3AqRPublisherFree ReadCube access
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Bois, Justin S.0000-0001-7137-8746
Grill, Stephan W.0000-0002-2290-5826
Additional Information:© 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 30 November 2009; Accepted 16 July 2010; Published 19 September 2010. We thank C. Cowan, N. Goehring, P. Gönczy, J. Howard, T. Hyman, M. Loose, F. Nédélec and K. Oegema for advice and suggestions on the manuscript. We are grateful to E. Munro for scientific advice, worm strains and discussions. M.M. is supported by a predoctoral fellowship from the Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds, and J.S.B. by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Human Frontier Science Program. Author Contributions: M.M. performed the experiments; the presented ideas and the theory were developed together by all authors. The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Boehringer Ingelheim FondsUNSPECIFIED
Human Frontier Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Biophysics; Cell polarity; Developmental biology
Issue or Number:7315
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200415-085939711
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200415-085939711
Official Citation:Mayer, M., Depken, M., Bois, J. et al. Anisotropies in cortical tension reveal the physical basis of polarizing cortical flows. Nature 467, 617–621 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09376
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102548
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Apr 2020 16:16
Last Modified:15 Apr 2020 16:16

Repository Staff Only: item control page