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Association Between Macronutrients Intake and Depression in the United States and South Korea

Oh, Jihoon and Yun, Kyongsik and Chae, Jeong-Ho and Kim, Tae-Suk (2020) Association Between Macronutrients Intake and Depression in the United States and South Korea. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11 . Art. No. 207. ISSN 1664-0640. PMCID PMC7090018. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00207.

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Although the risk for depression appears to be related to daily dietary habits, how the proportion of major macronutrients affects the occurrence of depression remains largely unknown. This study aims to estimate the association between macronutrients (i.e., carbohydrate, protein, fat) and depression through national survey datasets from the United States and South Korea. Association between the prevalence of depression and each macronutrient was measured from 60,935 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and 15,700 participants from the South Korea NHANES (K-NHANES) databases. When the proportion of calories intake by protein increased by 10%, the prevalence of depression was significantly reduced both in the United States [Odds Ratio, OR (95% CI), 0.621 (0.530–0.728)] and South Korea [0.703 (0.397–0.994)]. An association between carbohydrate intake and the prevalence of depression was seen in the United States [1.194 (1.116–1.277)], but not in South Korea. Fat intake was not significantly associated with depression in either country. Subsequent analysis showed that the low protein intake groups had significantly higher risk for depression than the normal protein intake groups in both the United States [1.648 (1.179–2.304)] and South Korea [3.169 (1.598–6.286)]. In the daily diet of macronutrients, the proportion of protein intake is significantly associated with the prevalence of depression. These associations were more prominent in adults with insufficient protein intake, and the pattern of association between macronutrients and depression in Asian American and South Korean populations were similar. Our findings suggest that the proportion of macronutrients intake in everyday life may be related to the occurrence of depression.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Yun, Kyongsik0000-0002-6103-7187
Additional Information:© 2020 Oh, Yun, Chae and Kim. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Received: 11 December 2019; Accepted: 03 March 2020; Published: 17 March 2020. Data Availability Statement: The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Ethics Statement: The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Ethics Committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital at The Catholic University of Korea (KC17ZESI0132). The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Author Contributions: JO and T-SK conceived the idea of this study. JO and KY collected the data and performed the statistical analysis. JO drafted the manuscript. J-HC and T-SK reviewed the data and revised the manuscript. This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HM15C1054). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Korea Health Industry Development InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Health and Welfare (Korea)HM15C1054
Subject Keywords:depression, macronutrients, nutritional psychiatry, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), national survey
PubMed Central ID:PMC7090018
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200415-121426868
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Official Citation:Oh J, Yun K, Chae J-H and Kim T-S (2020) Association Between Macronutrients Intake and Depression in the United States and South Korea. Front. Psychiatry 11:207. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00207
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102558
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Apr 2020 19:53
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:13

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