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California-Kepler Survey. IX. Revisiting the Minimum-mass Extrasolar Nebula with Precise Stellar Parameters

Dai, Fei and Winn, Joshua N. and Schlaufman, Kevin and Wang, Songhu and Weiss, Lauren and Petigura, Erik A. and Howard, Andrew W. and Fang, Min (2020) California-Kepler Survey. IX. Revisiting the Minimum-mass Extrasolar Nebula with Precise Stellar Parameters. Astronomical Journal, 159 (6). Art. No. 247. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab88b8.

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We investigate a possible correlation between the solid surface density Σ of the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula (MMEN) and the host star mass M★ and metallicity [Fe/H]. Leveraging on the precise host star properties from the California-Kepler Survey (CKS), we found that Σ= 50⁺³³₋₂₀ g cm ⁻² (a/1 au)^(−1.75±0.07) (M★/M⊙)^(1.04±0.22) 10^(0.22±0.05[Fe/H]) for Kepler-like systems (1–4R⊕; a < 1 au). The strong M★ dependence is reminiscent of previous dust continuum results that the solid disk mass scales with M★. The weaker [Fe/H] dependence shows that sub-Neptune planets, unlike giant planets, form readily in lower metallicity environment. The innermost region (a < 0.1 au) of an MMEN maintains a smooth profile despite a steep decline of planet occurrence rate: a result that favors the truncation of disks by corotating magnetospheres with a range of rotation periods, rather than the sublimation of dust. The Σ of Kepler multitransiting systems shows a much stronger correlation with M★ and [Fe/H] than singles. This suggests that the dynamically hot evolution that produced single systems also partially removed the memory of formation in disks. Radial-velocity planets yielded a MMEN very similar to CKS planets; transit-timing-variation planets' postulated convergent migration history is supported by their poorly constrained MMEN. We found that lower mass stars have a higher efficiency of forming/retaining planets: for Sun-like stars, about 20% of the solid mass within ~1 au are converted/preserved as sub-Neptunes, compared to 70% for late-K to early-M stars. This may be due to the lower binary fraction, lower giant-planet occurrence, or the longer disk lifetime of lower mass stars.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Schlaufman, Kevin0000-0001-5761-6779
Wang, Songhu0000-0002-7846-6981
Weiss, Lauren0000-0002-3725-3058
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Fang, Min0000-0001-8060-1321
Alternate Title:CKS IX: Revisiting the Minimum-Mass Extrasolar Nebula with Precise Stellar Parameters
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 January 30; revised 2020 April 9; accepted 2020 April 11; published 2020 May 4. We thank Heather Knutson, Kento Masuda, Luke Bouma, Sarah Millholland, Sharon Wang, Ji-Wei Xie, Doug Lin, and Eve Lee for helpful discussions. Software: MultiNest (Feroz et al. 2009), Forecaster (Chen & Kipping 2017).
Group:Astronomy Department
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet formation
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet formation (492)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200420-123429117
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Fei Dai et al 2020 AJ 159 247
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102657
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Apr 2020 20:53
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:14

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