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Additive Manufacturing of High-Refractive-Index, Nanoarchitected Titanium Dioxide for 3D Dielectric Photonic Crystals

Vyatskikh, Andrey and Ng, Ryan C. and Edwards, Bryce and Briggs, Ryan M. and Greer, Julia R. (2020) Additive Manufacturing of High-Refractive-Index, Nanoarchitected Titanium Dioxide for 3D Dielectric Photonic Crystals. Nano Letters, 20 (5). pp. 3513-3520. ISSN 1530-6984. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c00454.

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Additive manufacturing at small scales enables advances in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems, micro-optics, and medical devices. Materials that lend themselves to AM at the nanoscale, especially for optical applications, are limited. State-of-the-art AM processes for high-refractive-index materials typically suffer from high porosity and poor repeatability and require complex experimental procedures. We developed an AM process to fabricate complex 3D architectures out of fully dense titanium dioxide (TiO₂) with a refractive index of 2.3 and nanosized critical dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis proves this material to be rutile phase of nanocrystalline TiO₂, with an average grain size of 110 nm and <1% porosity. Proof-of-concept woodpile architectures with 300–600 nm beam dimensions exhibit a full photonic band gap centered at 1.8–2.9 μm, as revealed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and supported by plane wave expansion simulations. The developed AM process enables advances in 3D MEMS, micro-optics, and prototyping of 3D dielectric PhCs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Vyatskikh, Andrey0000-0002-6917-6931
Ng, Ryan C.0000-0002-0527-9130
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Alternate Title:Additive Manufacturing of High Refractive Index, Nano-architected Titanium Dioxide for 3D Dielectric Photonic Crystals
Additional Information:© 2020 American Chemical Society. Received: February 2, 2020; Revised: April 22, 2020; Published: April 27, 2020. The authors are grateful for the support of J.R.G.’s DoD Vannevar-Bush Faculty Fellowship. Authors also acknowledge A.V.’s Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech Fellowship and NIH Biotechnology Leadership Pre-Doctoral Training Program support. We thank Professor George R. Rossman (Caltech) for his assistance with Raman spectroscopy and FTIR. The authors declare no competing financial interest.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
NIH Predoctoral FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:additive manufacturing, titanium dioxide, hybrid organic−inorganic material, two-photon lithography, high refractive index, photonic crystals
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200427-132503609
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Additive Manufacturing of High-Refractive-Index, Nanoarchitected Titanium Dioxide for 3D Dielectric Photonic Crystals. Andrey Vyatskikh, Ryan C. Ng, Bryce Edwards, Ryan M. Briggs, and Julia R. Greer. Nano Letters 2020 20 (5), 3513-3520; DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c00454
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102811
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Apr 2020 20:52
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:15

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