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Increasing efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces using the grating averaging technique

Arbabi, Amir and Arbabi, Ehsan and Mansouree, Mahdad and Han, Seunghoon and Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa and Horie, Yu and Faraon, Andrei (2020) Increasing efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces using the grating averaging technique. Scientific Reports, 10 . Art. No. 7124. ISSN 2045-2322. PMCID PMC7188898.

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One of the important advantages of optical metasurfaces over conventional diffractive optical elements is their capability to efficiently deflect light by large angles. However, metasurfaces are conventionally designed using approaches that are optimal for small deflection angles and their performance for designing high numerical aperture devices is not well quantified. Here we introduce and apply a technique for the estimation of the efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces. The technique is based on a particular coherent averaging of diffraction coefficients of periodic blazed gratings and can be used to compare the performance of different metasurface designs in implementing high numerical aperture devices. Unlike optimization-based methods that rely on full-wave simulations and are only practicable in designing small metasurfaces, the gradient averaging technique allows for the design of arbitrarily large metasurfaces. Using this technique, we identify an unconventional metasurface design and experimentally demonstrate a metalens with a numerical aperture of 0.78 and a measured focusing efficiency of 77%. The grating averaging is a versatile technique applicable to many types of gradient metasurfaces, thus enabling highly efficient metasurface components and systems.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Arbabi, Amir0000-0001-8831-7552
Arbabi, Ehsan0000-0002-5328-3863
Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa0000-0002-6968-811X
Horie, Yu0000-0001-7083-1270
Faraon, Andrei0000-0002-8141-391X
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit Received 25 February 2020; Accepted 13 April 2020; Published 28 April 2020. We gratefully acknowledge critical support and infrastructure provided for this work by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. This work was supported by Samsung Electronics. Author Contributions: A.A. conceived the idea and designed the structures. A.A., E.A., S.M.K. and Y.H. fabricated the structures. A.A., M.M. and S.H. performed the simulations. A.A. and E.A. performed the measurements and analyzed the data. A.A. and A.F. devised the experiments and supervised the work. A.A. prepared the manuscript with input from all authors. The authors declare no competing interests.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Samsung ElectronicsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Metamaterials; Nanophotonics and plasmonics; Sub-wavelength optics
PubMed Central ID:PMC7188898
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200428-092846029
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Official Citation:Arbabi, A., Arbabi, E., Mansouree, M. et al. Increasing efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces using the grating averaging technique. Sci Rep 10, 7124 (2020).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102838
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:28 Apr 2020 16:51
Last Modified:11 May 2020 20:23

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