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A family portrait of disk inner rims around Herbig Ae/Be stars. Hunting for warps, rings, self shadowing, and misalignments in the inner astronomical units

Kluska, J. and Berger, J.-P. and Malbet, F. and Lazareff, B. and Benisty, M. and Le Bouquin, J.-B. and Absil, O. and Baron, F. and Delboulbé, A. and Duvert, G. and Isella, A. and Jocou, L. and Juhasz, A. and Kraus, S. and Lachaume, R. and Ménard, F. and Millan-Gabet, R. and Monnier, J. D. and Moulin, T. and Perraut, K. and Rochat, S. and Pinte, C. and Soulez, F. and Tallon, M. and Thi, W.-F. and Thiébaut, E. and Traub, W. and Zins, G. (2020) A family portrait of disk inner rims around Herbig Ae/Be stars. Hunting for warps, rings, self shadowing, and misalignments in the inner astronomical units. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 636 . Art. No. A116. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833774.

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Context. The innermost astronomical unit (au) in protoplanetary disks is a key region for stellar and planet formation, as exoplanet searches have shown a large occurrence of close-in planets that are located within the first au around their host star. Aims. We aim to reveal the morphology of the disk inner rim using near-infrared interferometric observations with milli-arcsecond resolution provided by near-infrared multitelescope interferometry. Methods. We provide model-independent reconstructed images of 15 objects selected from the Herbig AeBe survey carried out with PIONIER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, using the semi-parametric approach for image reconstruction of chromatic objects. We propose a set of methods to reconstruct and analyze the images in a consistent way. Results. We find that 40% of the systems (6/15) are centrosymmetric at the angular resolution of the observations. For the rest of the objects, we find evidence for asymmetric emission due to moderate-to-strong inclination of a disk-like structure for ~30% of the objects (5/15) and noncentrosymmetric morphology due to a nonaxisymmetric and possibly variable environment (4/15, ~27%). Among the systems with a disk-like structure, 20% (3/15) show a resolved dust-free cavity. Finally, we do not detect extended emission beyond the inner rim. Conclusions. The image reconstruction process is a powerful tool to reveal complex disk inner rim morphologies, which is complementary to the fit of geometrical models. At the angular resolution reached by near-infrared interferometric observations, most of the images are compatible with a centrally peaked emission (no cavity). For the most resolved targets, image reconstruction reveals morphologies that cannot be reproduced by generic parametric models (e.g., perturbed inner rims or complex brightness distributions). Moreover, the nonaxisymmetric disks show that the spatial resolution probed by optical interferometers makes the observations of the near-infrared emission (inside a few au) sensitive to temporal evolution with a time-scale down to a few weeks. The evidence of nonaxisymmetric emission that cannot be explained by simple inclination and radiative transfer effects requires alternative explanations, such as a warping of the inner disks. Interferometric observations can therefore be used to follow the evolution of the asymmetry of those disks at an au or sub-au scale.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kluska, J.0000-0002-9491-393X
Malbet, F.0000-0002-8029-4226
Absil, O.0000-0002-4006-6237
Duvert, G.0000-0001-8769-3660
Kraus, S.0000-0001-6017-8773
Millan-Gabet, R.0000-0003-0447-5866
Monnier, J. D.0000-0002-3380-3307
Perraut, K.0000-0003-3099-757X
Soulez, F.0000-0001-5678-1182
Tallon, M.0000-0002-6996-580X
Thi, W.-F.0000-0002-1363-2301
Thiébaut, E.0000-0002-8908-7493
Zins, G.0000-0001-8862-7702
Additional Information:© ESO 2020. Received 4 July 2018 / Accepted 15 March 2020. We want to acknowledge the referee for his/her comments. This work is supported by the French ANR POLCA project (Processing of pOLychromatic interferometriC data for Astrophysics, ANR-10-BLAN-0511). JK acknowledges support from an Marie Curie Career Integration Grant (SH-06192, PI: Stefan Kraus) and a Philip Leverhulme Prize (PLP-2013-110). J.K. acknowledges support from the Research Council of the KU Leuven under grant number C14/17/082. F.B. acknowledges funding from National Science Foundation awards number 1210972 and 1616483. S.K. acknowledges support from an ERC Starting Grant (Grant Agreement No. 639889). F.M. acknowledges funding from the EU FP7-2011 under Grant Agreement No 284405. F.M. acknowledges funding from ANR of France under contract number ANR-16-CE31-0013. C.P. acknowledges funding from the Australian Research Council via FT170100040, and DP180104235. PIONIER is funded by the Université Joseph Fourier (UJF, Grenoble) through its Poles TUNES and SMING, the Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, the “Agence Nationale pour la Recherche” with the program ANR EXOZODI, and the Institut National des Science de l’Univers (INSU) via the “Programme National de Physique Stellaire” and “Programme National de Planétologie”. The authors want to warmly thank all the people involved in the VLTI project. This work is based on observations made with the ESO telescopes. It made use of the Smithsonian NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and of the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). All calculations and graphics were performed with the open source software Yorick. This research has made use of the Jean-Marie Mariotti Center ASPRO2 and SearchCal services co-developed by CRAL, IPAG and FIZEAU.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-10-BLAN-0511
Marie Curie FellowshipSH-06192
Leverhulme TrustPLP-2013-110
Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenC14/17/082
European Research Council (ERC)639889
European Research Council (ERC)284405
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-16-CE31-0013
Australian Research CouncilFT170100040
Australian Research CouncilDP180104235
Université Joseph FourierUNSPECIFIED
Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)EXOZODI
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Programme National de Physique Stellaire (PNPS)UNSPECIFIED
Programme National de Planetologie (PNP)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be / techniques: interferometric / techniques: high angular resolution / protoplanetary disks / circumstellar matter / stars: pre-main sequence
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200430-151240421
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A family portrait of disk inner rims around Herbig Ae/Be stars - Hunting for warps, rings, self shadowing, and misalignments in the inner astronomical units J. Kluska, J.-P. Berger, F. Malbet, B. Lazareff, M. Benisty, J.-B. Le Bouquin, O. Absil, F. Baron, A. Delboulbé, G. Duvert, A. Isella, L. Jocou, A. Juhasz, S. Kraus, R. Lachaume, F. Ménard, R. Millan-Gabet, J. D. Monnier, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, S. Rochat, C. Pinte, F. Soulez, M. Tallon, W.-F. Thi, E. Thiébaut, W. Traub and G. Zins A&A, 636 (2020) A116 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102945
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:01 May 2020 14:32
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:16

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