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Debris Disk Results from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey's Polarimetric Imaging Campaign

Esposito, Thomas M. and Kalas, Paul and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Duchêne, Gaspard and Patience, Jennifer and Hom, Justin and Perrin, Marshall D. and De Rosa, Robert J. and Chiang, Eugene and Czekala, Ian and Macintosh, Bruce and Graham, James R. and Ansdell, Megan and Arriaga, Pauline and Bruzzone, Sebastian and Bulger, Joanna and Chen, Christine H. and Cotten, Tara and Dong, Ruobing and Draper, Zachary H. and Follette, Katherine B. and Hung, Li-Wei and Lopez, Ronald and Matthews, Brenda C. and Mazoyer, Johan and Metchev, Stan and Rameau, Julien and Ren, Bing and Rice, Malena and Song, Inseok and Stahl, Kevin and Wang, Jason and Wolff, Schuyler and Zuckerman, Ben and Ammons, S. Mark and Bailey, Vanessa P. and Barman, Travis and Chilcote, Jeffrey and Doyon, Rene and Gerard, Benjamin L. and Goodsell, Stephen J. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hinkley, Sasha and Ingraham, Patrick and Konopacky, Quinn and Maire, Jerome and Marchis, Franck and Marley, Mark S. and Marois, Christian and Nielsen, Eric L. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David and Poyneer, Lisa and Pueyo, Laurent and Rajan, Abhijith and Rantakyro, Fredrik T. and Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste and Savransky, Dmitry and Schneider, Adam C. and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Soummer, Rémi and Thomas, Sandrine and Ward-Duong, Kimberly (2020) Debris Disk Results from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey's Polarimetric Imaging Campaign. Astronomical Journal, 160 (1). Art. No. 24. ISSN 1538-3881. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200501-110431529

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Abstract

We report the results of a ~4 yr direct imaging survey of 104 stars to resolve and characterize circumstellar debris disks in scattered light as part of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) Exoplanet Survey. We targeted nearby (≲150 pc), young (≲500 Myr) stars with high infrared (IR) excesses (L_(IR)/L★ > 10⁻⁵), including 38 with previously resolved disks. Observations were made using the GPI high-contrast integral field spectrograph in H-band (1.6 μm) coronagraphic polarimetry mode to measure both polarized and total intensities. We resolved 26 debris disks and 3 protoplanetary/transitional disks. Seven debris disks were resolved in scattered light for the first time, including newly presented HD 117214 and HD 156623, and we quantified basic morphologies of five of them using radiative transfer models. All of our detected debris disks except HD 156623 have dust-poor inner holes, and their scattered-light radii are generally larger than corresponding radii measured from resolved thermal emission and those inferred from spectral energy distributions. To assess sensitivity, we report contrasts and consider causes of nondetections. Detections were strongly correlated with high IR excess and high inclination, although polarimetry outperformed total intensity angular differential imaging for detecting low-inclination disks (≲70°). Based on postsurvey statistics, we improved upon our presurvey target prioritization metric predicting polarimetric disk detectability. We also examined scattered-light disks in the contexts of gas, far-IR, and millimeter detections. Comparing H-band and ALMA fluxes for two disks revealed tentative evidence for differing grain properties. Finally, we found no preference for debris disks to be detected in scattered light if wide-separation substellar companions were present.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab9199DOIArticle
http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.13722arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Esposito, Thomas M.0000-0002-0792-3719
Kalas, Paul0000-0002-6221-5360
Fitzgerald, Michael P.0000-0002-0176-8973
Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.0000-0001-6205-9233
Duchêne, Gaspard0000-0002-5092-6464
Perrin, Marshall D.0000-0002-3191-8151
De Rosa, Robert J.0000-0002-4918-0247
Chiang, Eugene0000-0002-6246-2310
Czekala, Ian0000-0002-1483-8811
Macintosh, Bruce0000-0003-1212-7538
Ansdell, Megan0000-0003-4142-9842
Chen, Christine H.0000-0002-8382-0447
Dong, Ruobing0000-0001-9290-7846
Draper, Zachary H.0000-0002-1834-3496
Mazoyer, Johan0000-0002-9133-3091
Metchev, Stan0000-0003-3050-8203
Rameau, Julien0000-0003-0029-0258
Ren, Bing0000-0002-5435-1127
Rice, Malena0000-0002-7670-670X
Song, Inseok0000-0002-5815-7372
Wang, Jason0000-0003-0774-6502
Ammons, S. Mark0000-0001-5172-7902
Bailey, Vanessa P.0000-0002-5407-2806
Barman, Travis0000-0002-7129-3002
Chilcote, Jeffrey0000-0001-6305-7272
Gerard, Benjamin L.0000-0003-3978-9195
Hinkley, Sasha0000-0001-8074-2562
Konopacky, Quinn0000-0002-9936-6285
Marchis, Franck0000-0001-7016-7277
Marley, Mark S.0000-0002-5251-2943
Marois, Christian0000-0002-4164-4182
Nielsen, Eric L.0000-0001-6975-9056
Oppenheimer, Rebecca0000-0001-7130-7681
Pueyo, Laurent0000-0003-3818-408X
Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste0000-0003-2233-4821
Schneider, Adam C.0000-0002-6294-5937
Soummer, Rémi0000-0003-2753-2819
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 September 28; revised 2020 April 20; accepted 2020 April 27; published 2020 June 15. We wish to thank the anonymous referee for constructive comments that improved this manuscript. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). This work made use of data from the European Space Agency mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This research made use of the SIMBAD and VizieR databases, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, and of ESA's Herschel Science Archive (http://archives.esac.esa.int/hsa/whsa). Supported by NSF grants AST-1411868 (E.L.N., K.B.F., B.M., and J.P.), AST-141378 (G.D.), and AST-1518332 (T.M.E., R.J.D.R., J.R.G., P.K., G.D.). Supported by NASA grants NNX14AJ80G (E.L.N., B.M., F.M., and M.P.), NNX15AC89G and NNX15AD95G/NExSS (T.M.E., B.M., R.J.D.R., G.D., J.J.W, J.R.G., P.K.), NN15AB52l (D.S.), and NNX16AD44G (K.M.M.). M.R. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant number DGE-1752134. J.R. and R.D. acknowledge support from the Fonds de Recherche du Quèbec. J. Mazoyer's work was performed in part under contract with the California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. M.M.B. and J.M. were supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grants #51378.01-A and HST-HF2-51414.001, respectively, and I.C. through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51405.001-A, awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. K.W.D. is supported by an NRAO Student Observing Support Award SOSPA3-007. J.J.W. is supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation 51 Pegasi b postdoctoral fellowship. This work benefited from NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) research coordination network sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Portions of this work were also performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Facility: Gemini:South. - Software: Gemini Planet Imager Data Pipeline (Perrin et al. 2014, 2016, http://ascl.net/1411.018), pyKLIP (Wang et al. 2015b, http://ascl.net/1506.001), NumPy (Oliphant 2006, https://numpy.org), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020, http://www.scipy.org/), Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), iPython (Perez & Granger 2007), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013, http://ascl.net/1303.002), corner (Foreman-Mackey 2016, http://ascl.net/1702.002).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1411868
NSFAST-141378
NSFAST-1518332
NASANNX14AJ80G
NASANNX15AC89G
NASANNX15AD95G
NASANN15AB52l
NASANNX16AD44G
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1752134
Fonds de Recherche du QuèbecUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
NASA Sagan FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NASA Hubble Fellowship51378.01-A
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51414.001
NASANAS5-26555
National Radio Astronomy ObservatorySOSPA3-007
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC52-07NA27344
Subject Keywords:Debris disks ; Circumstellar disks ; Polarimetry ; Near infrared astronomy ; Coronagraphic imaging ; Direct imaging ; Circumstellar dust ; Astronomy data modeling ; Exoplanet systems ; Surveys ; Protoplanetary disks
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Debris disks (363); Circumstellar disks (235); Polarimetry (1278); Near infrared astronomy (1093); Coronagraphic imaging (313); Direct imaging (387); Circumstellar dust (236); Astronomy data modeling (1859); Exoplanet
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200501-110431529
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200501-110431529
Official Citation:Thomas M. Esposito et al 2020 AJ 160 24
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102961
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 May 2020 14:06
Last Modified:15 Jun 2020 17:42

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