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HD 165054: An Astrometric Calibration Field for High-contrast Imagers in Baade's Window

Nguyen, Meiji M. and De Rosa, Robert J. and Wang, Jason J. and Esposito, Thomas M. and Kalas, Paul and Graham, James R. and Macintosh, Bruce and Bailey, Vanessa P. and Barman, Travis and Bulger, Joanna and Chilcote, Jeffrey and Cotten, Tara and Doyon, Rene and Duchêne, Gaspard and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Follette, Katherine B. and Gerard, Benjamin L. and Goodsell, Stephen J. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hom, Justin and Hung, Li-Wei and Ingraham, Patrick and Konopacky, Quinn and Larkin, James E. and Maire, Jérôme and Marchis, Franck and Marley, Mark S. and Marois, Christian and Metchev, Stanimir and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Nielsen, Eric L. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David and Patience, Jennifer and Perrin, Marshall and Poyneer, Lisa and Pueyo, Laurent and Rajan, Abhijith and Rameau, Julien and Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. and Ren, Bin and Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste and Savransky, Dmitry and Schneider, Adam C. and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Song, Inseok and Soummer, Remi and Tallis, Melisa and Thomas, Sandrine and Wallace, J. Kent and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Wiktorowicz, Sloane and Wolff, Schuyler (2020) HD 165054: An Astrometric Calibration Field for High-contrast Imagers in Baade's Window. Astronomical Journal, 159 (6). Art. No. 244. ISSN 1538-3881.

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We present a study of the HD 165054 astrometric calibration field that has been periodically observed with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). HD 165054 is a bright star within Baade's Window, a region of the galactic plane with relatively low extinction from interstellar dust. HD 165054 was selected as a calibrator target due to the high number density of stars within this region (~3 stars per square arcsecond with H < 22), necessary because of the small field of view of the GPI. Using nine epochs spanning over five years, we have fit a standard five-parameter astrometric model to the astrometry of seven background stars within close proximity to HD 165054 (ρ < 2''). We achieved a proper motion precision of ~0.3 mas yr⁻¹ and constrained the parallax of each star to be ≾1 mas. Our measured proper motions and parallax limits are consistent with the background stars being a part of the galactic bulge. Using these measurements, we find no evidence of any systematic trend of either the plate scale or the north angle offset of GPI between 2014 and 2019. We compared our model describing the motions of the seven background stars to observations of the same field in 2014 and 2018 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, an instrument with excellent astrometric calibration. We find that the predicted position of the background sources is consistent with that measured by NIRC2, within the uncertainties of the calibration of the two instruments. In the future, we will use this field as a standard astrometric calibrator for the upgrade of GPI and potentially for other high-contrast imagers.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
De Rosa, Robert J.0000-0002-4918-0247
Wang, Jason J.0000-0003-0774-6502
Esposito, Thomas M.0000-0002-0792-3719
Kalas, Paul0000-0002-6221-5360
Macintosh, Bruce0000-0003-1212-7538
Bailey, Vanessa P.0000-0002-5407-2806
Barman, Travis0000-0002-7129-3002
Chilcote, Jeffrey0000-0001-6305-7272
Duchêne, Gaspard0000-0002-5092-6464
Fitzgerald, Michael P.0000-0002-0176-8973
Gerard, Benjamin L.0000-0003-3978-9195
Konopacky, Quinn0000-0002-9936-6285
Larkin, James E.0000-0001-7687-3965
Marchis, Franck0000-0001-7016-7277
Marley, Mark S.0000-0002-5251-2943
Marois, Christian0000-0002-4164-4182
Metchev, Stanimir0000-0003-3050-8203
Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.0000-0001-6205-9233
Nielsen, Eric L.0000-0001-6975-9056
Oppenheimer, Rebecca0000-0001-7130-7681
Perrin, Marshall0000-0002-3191-8151
Pueyo, Laurent0000-0003-3818-408X
Rameau, Julien0000-0003-0029-0258
Ren, Bin0000-0003-1698-9696
Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste0000-0003-2233-4821
Schneider, Adam C.0000-0002-6294-5937
Song, Inseok0000-0002-5815-7372
Soummer, Remi0000-0003-2753-2819
Wiktorowicz, Sloane0000-0003-4483-5037
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 October 25; revised 2020 March 30; accepted 2020 April 2; published 2020 May 1. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation and is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This work has also made use of data from the European Space Agency mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database and the VizieR catalog access tool, both operated at the CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has made use of the Washington Double Star Catalog maintained at the U.S. Naval Observatory. Supported by NSF grants AST-1411868 (E.L.N., K.B.F., B.M., and J.P.), AST-141378 (G.D.), and AST-1518332 (M.M.N., R.J.D.R., T.M.E., J.R.G., P.K., G.D.). Supported by NASA grants NNX14AJ80G (E.L.N., B.M., F.M., and M.P.), NNX15AC89G and NNX15AD95G/NExSS (M.M.N., R.J.D.R., B.M., T.M.E., J.J.W., G.D., J.R.G., P.K.), and NN15AB52l (D.S.). M.M.B. was supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant #51378.01-A, awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. K.W.D. is supported by an NRAO Student Observing Support Award SOSPA3-007. J.J.W. is supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation 51 Pegasi b postdoctoral fellowship. This work benefited from NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) research coordination network sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Software: Gemini Planet Imager Data Pipeline (Perrin et al. 2014, 2016,, pyKLIP (Wang et al. 2015,, emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013,, Astropy (The Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013). Facilities: Gemini:South - Gemini South Telescope, Keck:II (NIRC2). -
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
NASA Hubble Fellowship51378.01-A
National Radio Astronomy ObservatorySOSPA3-007
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Subject Keywords:Direct imaging ; Astrometry ; Astronomical instrumentation ; Astronomy data reduction
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Direct imaging (387); Astrometry (80); Astronomical instrumentation (799); Astronomy data reduction (1861)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200501-110438634
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Meiji M. Nguyen et al 2020 AJ 159 244
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102963
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 May 2020 14:30
Last Modified:04 May 2020 16:06

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