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Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions

Madurowicz, Alexander and Macintosh, Bruce and Bailey, Vanessa P. and Chilcote, Jeffrey and Perrin, Marshall and Poyneer, Lisa and Pueyo, Laurent and Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste and Barman, Travis and Bulger, Joanna and Cotten, Tara and De Rosa, Robert J. and Doyon, Rene and Duchêne, Gaspard and Esposito, Thomas M. and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Follette, Katherine B. and Gerard, Benjamin L. and Goodsell, Stephen J. and Graham, James R. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hung, Li-Wei and Ingraham, Patrick and Kalas, Paul and Konopacky, Quinn and Maire, Jérôme and Marchis, Franck and Marley, Mark S. and Marois, Christian and Metchev, Stanimir and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Nielsen, Eric L. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David and Patience, Jennifer and Rajan, Abhijith and Rameau, Julien and Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. and Savransky, Dmitry and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Song, Inseok and Soummer, Remi and Tallis, Melissa and Thomas, Sandrine and Wang, Jason J. and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Wolf, Schuyler (2019) Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions. . (Unpublished)

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An explanation for the origin of asymmetry along the preferential axis of the PSF of an AO system is developed. When phase errors from high altitude turbulence scintillate due to Fresnel propagation, wavefront amplitude errors may be spatially offset from residual phase errors. These correlated errors appear as asymmetry in the image plane under the Fraunhofer condition. In an analytic model with an open-loop AO system, the strength of the asymmetry is calculated for a single mode of phase aberration, which generalizes to two dimensions under a Fourier decomposition of the complex illumination. Other parameters included are the spatial offset of the AO correction, which is the wind velocity in the frozen flow regime multiplied by the effective AO time delay, and propagation distance or altitude of the turbulent layer. In this model, the asymmetry is strongest when the wind is slow and nearest to the coronagraphic mask when the turbulent layer is far away, such as when the telescope is pointing low towards the horizon. A great emphasis is made about the fact that the brighter asymmetric lobe of the PSF points in the opposite direction as the wind, which is consistent analytically with the clarification that the image plane electric field distribution is actually the inverse Fourier transform of the aperture plane. Validation of this understanding is made with observations taken from the Gemini Planet Imager, as well as being reproducible in end-to-end AO simulations.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Macintosh, Bruce0000-0003-1212-7538
Bailey, Vanessa P.0000-0002-5407-2806
Chilcote, Jeffrey0000-0001-6305-7272
Perrin, Marshall0000-0002-3191-8151
Pueyo, Laurent0000-0003-3818-408X
Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste0000-0003-2233-4821
Barman, Travis0000-0002-7129-3002
De Rosa, Robert J.0000-0002-4918-0247
Duchêne, Gaspard0000-0002-5092-6464
Esposito, Thomas M.0000-0002-0792-3719
Fitzgerald, Michael P.0000-0002-0176-8973
Gerard, Benjamin L.0000-0003-3978-9195
Kalas, Paul0000-0002-6221-5360
Konopacky, Quinn0000-0002-9936-6285
Marchis, Franck0000-0001-7016-7277
Marley, Mark S.0000-0002-5251-2943
Marois, Christian0000-0002-4164-4182
Metchev, Stanimir0000-0003-3050-8203
Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.0000-0001-6205-9233
Nielsen, Eric L.0000-0001-6975-9056
Oppenheimer, Rebecca0000-0001-7130-7681
Rameau, Julien0000-0003-0029-0258
Song, Inseok0000-0002-5815-7372
Soummer, Remi0000-0003-2753-2819
Wang, Jason J.0000-0003-0774-6502
Subject Keywords:Adaptive Optics, Point-Spread Functions, Scintillation, Fresnel Propagation, Turbulence
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200501-110442138
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102964
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 May 2020 14:38
Last Modified:04 May 2020 14:38

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