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Keck/NIRC2 L'-Band Imaging of Jovian-Mass Accreting Protoplanets around PDS 70

Wang, Jason J. and Ginzburg, Sivan and Ren, Bin and Wallack, Nicole and Gao, Peter and Mawet, Dimitri and Bond, Charlotte Z. and Cetre, Sylvain and Wizinowich, Peter and De Rosa, Robert J. and Ruane, Garreth and Liu, Michael C. and Alvarez, Carlos and Baranec, Christoph and Choquet, Élodie and Chun, Mark and Delorme, Jacques-Robert and Duchêne, Gaspard and Ghez, Andrea M. and Guyon, Olivier and Hall, Donald N. B. and Jensen-Clem, Rebecca and Jovanovic, Nemanja and Lilley, Scott and Ménard, François and Meshkat, Tiffany and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Ngo, Henry and Pinte, Christophe and Ragland, Sam and Wang, Ji and Wetherell, Ed and Williams, Jonathan P. and Ygouf, Marie and Zuckerman, Ben and Matthews, Keith and Serabyn, Eugene (2020) Keck/NIRC2 L'-Band Imaging of Jovian-Mass Accreting Protoplanets around PDS 70. Astronomical Journal, 159 (6). Art. No. 263. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab8aef.

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We present L'-band imaging of the PDS 70 planetary system with Keck/NIRC2 using the new infrared pyramid wave front sensor. We detected both PDS 70 b and c in our images, as well as the front rim of the circumstellar disk. After subtracting off a model of the disk, we measured the astrometry and photometry of both planets. Placing priors based on the dynamics of the system, we estimated PDS 70 b to have a semimajor axis of 20⁺³₋₄ au and PDS 70 c to have a semimajor axis of 34⁺¹²₋₆ au (95% credible interval). We fit the spectral energy distribution (SED) of both planets. For PDS 70 b, we were able to place better constraints on the red half of its SED than previous studies and inferred the radius of the photosphere to be 2–3 R_(Jup). The SED of PDS 70 c is less well constrained, with a range of total luminosities spanning an order of magnitude. With our inferred radii and luminosities, we used evolutionary models of accreting protoplanets to derive a mass of PDS 70 b between 2 and 4 M_(Jup) and a mean mass accretion rate between 3 × 10⁻⁷ and 8 × 10⁻⁷ M_(Jup)/yr. For PDS 70 c, we computed a mass between 1 and 3 M_(Jup) and mean mass accretion rate between 1 × 10⁻⁷ and 5 × 10⁻⁷ M_(Jup) /yr. The mass accretion rates imply dust accretion timescales short enough to hide strong molecular absorption features in both planets' SEDs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wang, Jason J.0000-0003-0774-6502
Ren, Bin0000-0003-1698-9696
Wallack, Nicole0000-0003-0354-0187
Gao, Peter0000-0002-8518-9601
Mawet, Dimitri0000-0002-8895-4735
Wizinowich, Peter0000-0002-1646-442X
De Rosa, Robert J.0000-0002-4918-0247
Ruane, Garreth0000-0003-4769-1665
Liu, Michael C.0000-0003-2232-7664
Baranec, Christoph0000-0002-1917-9157
Choquet, Élodie0000-0002-9173-0740
Ghez, Andrea M.0000-0003-3230-5055
Guyon, Olivier0000-0002-1097-9908
Jensen-Clem, Rebecca0000-0003-0054-2953
Jovanovic, Nemanja0000-0001-5213-6207
Ménard, François0000-0002-1637-7393
Meshkat, Tiffany0000-0001-6126-2467
Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.0000-0001-6205-9233
Ngo, Henry0000-0001-5172-4859
Pinte, Christophe0000-0001-5907-5179
Wang, Ji0000-0002-4361-8885
Williams, Jonathan P.0000-0001-5058-695X
Ygouf, Marie0000-0001-7591-2731
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 March 13; revised 2020 April 10; accepted 2020 April 17; published 2020 May 18. We thank Trevor David for helpful discussion and the referees for their helpful suggestions for the paper. J.J.W., S.G., and P.G. are supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation 51 Pegasi b postdoctoral fellowship. The Keck infrared pyramid wave front sensor was developed with support from the National Science Foundation under grant Nos. AST-1611623 and AST-1106391, as well as the Heising Simons Foundation under the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer project. This research is partially supported by NASA ROSES XRP, award 80NSSC19K0294. F.M. acknowledges funding from ANR of France under contract ANR-16-CE31-0013. Part of the computations presented here were conducted on the Caltech High Performance Cluster, partially supported by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (grant agreement 337569, VORTEX) and under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement 819155, EPIC). The research was supported by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation (grant for Concerted Research Actions). Data presented in this work were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facility: Keck II (NIRC2). - Software: pyKLIP (Wang et al. 2015), orbitize! (Blunt et al. 2020), DebrisDiskFM (Ren et al. 2019), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), ptemcee (Vousden et al. 2016), MCFOST (Pinte et al. 2006, 2009).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-16-CE31-0013
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)337569
European Research Council (ERC)819155
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet formation ; Exoplanet atmospheres ; Orbit determination ; Exoplanet dynamics ; Coronagraphic imaging
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet formation (492); Exoplanet atmospheres (487); Orbit determination (1175); Exoplanet dynamics (490); Coronagraphic imaging (313)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200501-110445577
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jason J. Wang et al 2020 AJ 159 263
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:102965
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 May 2020 14:58
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:17

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