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H II regions and high-mass starless clump candidates. I. Catalogs and properties

Zhang, S. and Zavagno, A. and Yuan, J. and Liu, H. and Figueira, M. and Russeil, D. and Schuller, F. and Marsh, K. A. and Wu, Y. (2020) H II regions and high-mass starless clump candidates. I. Catalogs and properties. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 637 . Art. No. A40. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936792.

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Context. The role of ionization feedback on high-mass (>8 M⊙) star formation is still highly debated. Questions remain concerning the presence of nearby H II regions changes the properties of early high-mass star formation and whether H II regions promote or inhibit the formation of high-mass stars. Aims. To characterize the role of H II regions on the formation of high-mass stars, we study the properties of a sample of candidates high-mass starless clumps (HMSCs), of which about 90% have masses larger than 100 M⊙. These high-mass objects probably represent the earliest stages of high-mass star formation; we search if (and how) their properties are modified by the presence of an H II region. Methods. We took advantage of the recently published catalog of HMSC candidates. By cross matching the HMSCs and H II regions, we classified HMSCs into three categories: (1) the HMSCs associated with H II regions both in the position in the projected plane of the sky and in velocity; (2) HMSCs associated in the plane of the sky, but not in velocity; and (3) HMSCs far away from any H II regions in the projected sky plane. We carried out comparisons between associated and nonassociated HMSCs based on statistical analyses of multiwavelength data from infrared to radio. Results. We show that there are systematic differences of the properties of HMSCs in different environments. Statistical analyses suggest that HMSCs associated with H II regions are warmer, more luminous, more centrally-peaked and turbulent. We also clearly show, for the first time, that the ratio of bolometric luminosity to envelope mass of HMSCs (L∕M) could not be a reliable evolutionary probe for early massive star formation due to the external heating effects of the H II regions. Conclusions. We show HMSCs associated with H II regions present statistically significant differences from HMSCs far away from H II regions, especially for dust temperature and L∕M. More centrally peaked and turbulent properties of HMSCs associated with H II regions may promote the formation of high-mass stars by limiting fragmentation. High-resolution interferometric surveys toward HMSCs are crucial to reveal how H II regions impact the star formation process inside HMSCs.

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Marsh, K. A.0000-0003-0107-7803
Additional Information:© S. Zhang et al. 2020. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 26 September 2019; Accepted 24 February 2020; Published online 12 May 2020. A.Z. thanks the support of the Institut Universitaire de France. We want to thank the anonymous referee for the constructive comments that helped to improve the quality of the paper. The SEDIGISM data is acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) under programmes 092.F-9315(A) and 193.C0584(A). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory. Herschel Hi-GAL data processing, map production and source catalogue generation is the result of a multi-year effort thanks to Contracts I/038/080/0 and I/029/12/0 from ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Institut Universitaire de France (IUF)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/038/080/0
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/029/12/0
Subject Keywords:stars: formation – H II regions – submillimeter: ISM
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200512-121255082
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Official Citation:H II regions and high-mass starless clump candidates - I. Catalogs and properties. S. Zhang, A. Zavagno, J. Yuan, H. Liu, M. Figueira, D. Russeil, F. Schuller, K. A. Marsh and Y. Wu. A&A, 637 (2020) A40; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103139
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 May 2020 19:40
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:18

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