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The Zwicky Transient Facility Census of the Local Universe. I. Systematic Search for Calcium-rich Gap Transients Reveals Three Related Spectroscopic Subclasses

De, Kishalay and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Fremling, U. Christoffer and Adams, Scott and Aloisi, Robert and Andreoni, Igor and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Bellm, Eric C. and Bildsten, Lars and Cannella, Christopher and Cook, David O. and Delacroix, Alexandre and Drake, Andrew and Duev, Dmitry and Dugas, Alison and Frederick, Sara and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Goldstein, Daniel and Golkhou, V. Zach and Graham, Matthew J. and Hale, David and Hankins, Matthew and Helou, George and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Irani, Ido and Jencson, Jacob E. and Kaplan, David L. and Kaye, Stephen and Kulkarni, S. R. and Kupfer, Thomas and Laher, Russ R. and Leadbeater, Robin and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Masci, Frank J. and Miller, Adam A. and Neill, James D. and Ofek, Eran O. and Perley, Daniel A. and Polin, Abigail and Prince, Thomas A. and Quataert, Eliot and Reiley, Dan and Riddle, Reed L. and Rusholme, Ben and Sharma, Yashvi and Shupe, David L. and Sollerman, Jesper and Tartaglia, Leonardo and Walters, Richard and Yan, Lin and Yao, Yuhan (2020) The Zwicky Transient Facility Census of the Local Universe. I. Systematic Search for Calcium-rich Gap Transients Reveals Three Related Spectroscopic Subclasses. Astrophysical Journal, 905 (1). Art. No. 58. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abb45c.

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Using the Zwicky Transient Facility alert stream, we are conducting a large spectroscopic campaign to construct a complete, volume-limited sample of transients brighter than 20 mag, and coincident within 100" of galaxies in the Census of the Local Universe catalog. We describe the experiment design and spectroscopic completeness from the first 16 months of operations, which have classified 754 supernovae. We present results from a systematic search for calcium-rich gap transients in the sample of 22 low-luminosity (peak absolute magnitude M > −17), hydrogen-poor events found in the experiment. We report the detection of eight new events, and constrain their volumetric rate to ≳ 15% ± 5% of the SN Ia rate. Combining this sample with 10 previously known events, we find a likely continuum of spectroscopic properties ranging from events with SN Ia–like features (Ca-Ia objects) to those with SN Ib/c–like features (Ca-Ib/c objects) at peak light. Within the Ca-Ib/c events, we find two populations distinguished by their red (g − r ≈ 1.5 mag) or green (g - r ≈ 0.5 mag) colors at the r-band peak, wherein redder events show strong line blanketing features and slower light curves (similar to Ca-Ia objects), weaker He lines, and lower [Ca ii]/[O i] in the nebular phase. We find that all together the spectroscopic continuum, volumetric rates, and striking old environments are consistent with the explosive burning of He shells on low-mass white dwarfs. We suggest that Ca-Ia and red Ca-Ib/c objects arise from the double detonation of He shells, while green Ca-Ib/c objects are consistent with low-efficiency burning scenarios like detonations in low-density shells or deflagrations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Fremling, U. Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Adams, Scott0000-0001-5855-5939
Aloisi, Robert0000-0003-2822-616X
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Cannella, Christopher0000-0003-2667-7290
Cook, David O.0000-0002-6877-7655
Duev, Dmitry0000-0001-5060-8733
Frederick, Sara0000-0001-9676-730X
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Goldstein, Daniel0000-0003-3461-8661
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Hankins, Matthew0000-0001-9315-8437
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Irani, Ido0000-0002-7996-8780
Jencson, Jacob E.0000-0001-5754-4007
Kaplan, David L.0000-0001-6295-2881
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Miller, Adam A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Polin, Abigail0000-0002-1633-6495
Prince, Thomas A.0000-0002-8850-3627
Quataert, Eliot0000-0001-9185-5044
Riddle, Reed L.0000-0002-0387-370X
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Tartaglia, Leonardo0000-0003-3433-1492
Walters, Richard0000-0002-1835-6078
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Alternate Title:The Zwicky Transient Facility Census of the Local Universe I: Systematic search for Calcium rich gap transients reveal three related spectroscopic sub-classes
Additional Information:© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 April 19; revised 2020 August 7; accepted 2020 August 25; published 2020 December 11. We thank the anonymous referee for a careful reading of the manuscript that helped significantly improve its content. We thank H. Perets, K. Shen, E.S. Phinney, J. Fuller, D. Kasen, B. Margalit, and S. Schulze for valuable discussions during this work. We thank M. Coughlin, S. Anand, A. Sagues Carracedo, L. Rauch, and U. Feindt for several discussions on the use of simsurvey. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) grant no. 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among Caltech (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK), and University of Sydney (Australia). This research benefited from interactions at several ZTF Theory Network meetings, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant GBMF5076. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the ZTF project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. SEDM is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. 1106171. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under Heising-Simons Foundation grant 12540303 (PI: Graham). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Based on observations made with NOT (operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias). A.G.Y.'s research is supported by the European Union via European Research Council grant no. 725161, the ISF GW Excellence Center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant, and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela, and the WIS–CIT joint research grant. A.G.Y. is a recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. A.Y.Q.H. is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant no. DGE-1144469 and by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant no. 1545949. R.L. is supported by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). Foscgui is a graphic user interface aimed at extracting SN spectroscopy and photometry obtained with FOSC-like instruments. It was developed by E. Cappellaro. A package description can be found at Facilities: PO:1.2 m (ZTF) - , PO:1.5 m (SEDM) - , Hale (DBSP - , WaSP) - , NOT: ALFOSC - , THO: ALPY200 - , Keck:I (LRIS). - Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), pandas (McKinney 2010), SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), scamp (Bertin 2006), SWarp (Bertin et al. 2002), PSFEx (Bertin 2011), pysedm (Rigault et al. 2019), pyraf-dbsp (Bellm & Sesar 2016), lpipe (Perley 2019), simsurvey (Feindt et al. 2019).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF5076
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Marie Curie Fellowship794467
Subject Keywords:Supernovae ; Compact objects ; White dwarf stars
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668); Compact objects (288); White dwarf stars (1799)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200604-151423784
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103706
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Jun 2020 18:00
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:24

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