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The Zwicky Transient Facility Census of the Local Universe I: Systematic search for Calcium rich gap transients reveal three related spectroscopic sub-classes

De, Kishalay and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Fremling, U. Christoffer and Adams, Scott and Andreoni, Igor and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Bellm, Eric C. and Bildsten, Lars and Cannella, Christopher and Cook, David O. and Delacroix, Alexandre and Drake, Andrew and Duev, Dmitry and Dugas, Alison and Frederick, Sara and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Goldstein, Daniel and Golkhou, V. Zach and Graham, Matthew J. and Hale, David and Hankins, Matthew and Helou, George and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Irani, Ido and Jencson, Jacob E. and Kaye, Stephen and Kulkarni, S. R. and Kupfer, Thomas and Laher, Russ R. and Leadbeater, Robin and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Masci, Frank J. and Miller, Adam A. and Neill, James D. and Ofek, Eran O. and Perley, Daniel A. and Polin, Abigail and Prince, Thomas A. and Quataert, Eliot and Reiley, Dan and Riddle, Reed L. and Rusholme, Ben and Sharma, Yashvi and Shupe, David L. and Sollerman, Jesper and Tartaglia, Leonardo and Walters, Richard and Yan, Lin and Yao, Yuhan (2020) The Zwicky Transient Facility Census of the Local Universe I: Systematic search for Calcium rich gap transients reveal three related spectroscopic sub-classes. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200604-151423784

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Abstract

Using the Zwicky Transient Facility alert stream, we are conducting a large campaign to spectroscopically classify all transients occurring in galaxies in the Census of the Local Universe (CLU) catalog. The aim of the experiment is to construct a spectroscopically complete, volume-limited sample of transients coincident within 100" of CLU galaxies out to 200Mpc, and to a depth of 20 mag. We describe the survey design and spectroscopic completeness from the first 16 months of operations. We present results from a systematic search for Calcium rich gap transients in the sample of 22 low luminosity (peak absolute magnitude M > -17), hydrogen poor events found in the experiment (out of 754 spectroscopically classified SNe). We report the detection of eight Calcium rich gap transients, and place a lower limit on the volumetric rate of these events to be ≈ 15±5% of the SN Ia rate. Combining this sample with ten events from the literature, we find evidence of a likely continuum of spectroscopic properties ranging from events with SN Ia-like features (Ca-Ia objects) to SN Ib/c-like features (Ca-Ib/c objects) at peak light. Within the Ca-Ib/c events, we find two populations of events distinguished by their red (g - r ≈ 1.5 mag) or green (g - r ≈ 0.5 mag) spectral colors at r-band peak. Red Ca-Ib/c events are characterized by strongly line-blanketed spectra, systematically slower light curves, weaker and slower (by ≈ 3000 km s⁻¹) He lines and lower [Ca II]/[O I] flux ratio (by a factor of ≈ 2) in the nebular phase compared to the green Ca-Ib/c objects. Ca-Ia objects show typically more luminous light curves (M_r ≈ -16.9 mag at peak) than Ca-Ib/c objects, strong line blanketing signatures with intermediate red colors (g - r ≈ 1 mag at r-band peak), slow light curves, and weak or no [O I] in the nebular phase. Together, we find that the continuum of spectroscopic properties and the correlations thereof, the volumetric rates and striking old environments of these events are consistent with progenitor channels involving the explosive burning of He shells on low mass white dwarfs over a range of shell and core masses. We posit that the Ca-Ia and red Ca-Ib/c objects are broadly consistent with scenarios invoking the double detonation of He shells on white dwarfs with high He burning efficiency, while green Ca-Ib/c objects could arise from He shell explosions with lower He burning efficiency such as detonations in lower density He shells or He shell deflagrations.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.09029arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Fremling, U. Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Adams, Scott0000-0001-5855-5939
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Cannella, Christopher0000-0003-2667-7290
Cook, David O.0000-0002-6877-7655
Duev, Dmitry0000-0001-5060-8733
Frederick, Sara0000-0001-9676-730X
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Goldstein, Daniel0000-0003-3461-8661
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Hankins, Matthew0000-0001-9315-8437
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Irani, Ido0000-0002-7996-8780
Jencson, Jacob E.0000-0001-5754-4007
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Miller, Adam A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Prince, Thomas A.0000-0002-8850-3627
Quataert, Eliot0000-0001-9185-5044
Riddle, Reed L.0000-0002-0387-370X
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Tartaglia, Leonardo0000-0003-3433-1492
Walters, Richard0000-0002-1835-6078
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Additional Information:We thank H. Perets, K. Shen, E. S. Phinney, J. Fuller, D. Kasen, B. Margalit, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, A. Filippenko, R. Fisher and S. Schulze for valuable discussions during this work. We thank M. Coughlin, S. Anand, A. Sagues Carracedo, L. Rauch and U. Feindt for several discussions on the use of simsurvey. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK) and University of Sydney (Australia). This research benefited from interactions at several ZTF Theory Network meetings, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF5076. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1106171. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant 12540303 (PI: Graham). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.) AGYs research is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; AGY is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. A.Y.Q.H. is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469 and by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No. 1545949. R.L. is supported by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 European Union (EU) Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). Foscgui is a graphic user interface aimed at extracting SN spectroscopy and photometry obtained with FOSC-like instruments. It was developed by E. Cappellaro. A package description can be found at http://sngroup.oapd.inaf.it/foscgui.html. Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), scipy (Virtanen et al. 2019), pandas (McKinney 2010), SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), scamp (Bertin 2006), SWarp (Bertin et al. 2002), PSFEx (Bertin 2011), pysedm (Rigault et al. 2019), pyraf-dbsp (Bellm & Sesar 2016), lpipe (Perley 2019), simsurvey (Feindt et al. 2019) Facilities: PO:1.2m (ZTF), PO:1.5m (SEDM), Hale (DBSP, WASP), NOT: ALFOSC, THO: ALPY200, Keck:I (LRIS).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-1545949
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF5076
NSFAST-1440341
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1106171
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Israel Ministry of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment FundUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Yeda-SelaUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Marie Curie FellowshipH2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general - supernovae: individual (SN 2005E, SN 2007ke, PTF09dav, SN 2010et, PTF11bij, SN 2012hn, PTF11kmb, PTF12bho, iPTF 16hgs, SN 2016hnk, SN 2018ckd, SN 2018lqo, SN 2018lqu, SN 2018gwo, SN 2018kjy, SN 2019hty, SN 2019ofm, SN 2019pxu) - surveys - stars: white dwarfs
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200604-151423784
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200604-151423784
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103706
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Jun 2020 18:00
Last Modified:05 Jun 2020 18:00

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