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SN 2020bvc: A Broad-line Type Ic Supernova with a Double-peaked Optical Light Curve and a Luminous X-Ray and Radio Counterpart

Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Perley, Daniel A. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Corsi, Alessandra and Schulze, Steve and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Sollerman, Jesper and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Anand, Shreya and Barbarino, Cristina and Bellm, Eric C. and Bruch, Rachel J. and Burns, Eric and De, Kishalay and Dekany, Richard and Delacroix, Alexandre and Duev, Dmitry A. and Frederiks, Dmitry D. and Fremling, Christoffer and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Golkhou, V. Zach and Graham, Matthew J. and Hale, David and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kupfer, Thomas and Laher, Russ R. and Martikainen, Julia and Masci, Frank J. and Neill, James D. and Ridnaia, Anna and Rusholme, Ben and Savchenko, Volodymyr and Shupe, David L. and Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Strotjohann, Nora L. and Svinkin, Dmitry S. and Taggart, Kirsty and Tartaglia, Leonardo and Yan, Lin and Zolkower, Jeffry (2020) SN 2020bvc: A Broad-line Type Ic Supernova with a Double-peaked Optical Light Curve and a Luminous X-Ray and Radio Counterpart. Astrophysical Journal, 902 (1). Art. No. 86. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aba630.

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We present optical, radio, and X-ray observations of SN 2020bvc (=ASASSN-20bs, ZTF 20aalxlis), a nearby (z = 0.0252; d = 114 Mpc) broad-line (BL) Type Ic supernova (SN) and the first double-peaked Ic-BL discovered without a gamma-ray burst (GRB) trigger. Our observations show that SN 2020bvc shares several properties in common with the Ic-BL SN 2006aj, which was associated with the low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (LLGRB) 060218. First, the 10 GHz radio luminosity (L_(radio) ≈ 10³⁷ erg s⁻¹)is brighter than ordinary core-collapse SNe but fainter than LLGRB SNe such as SN 1998bw (associated with LLGRB 980425). We model our VLA observations (spanning 13–43 days) as synchrotron emission from a mildly relativistic (v ≳ 0.3c) forward shock. Second, with Swift and Chandra, we detect X-ray emission (L_X ≈ 10⁴¹ erg s⁻¹) that is not naturally explained as inverse Compton emission or part of the same synchrotron spectrum as the radio emission. Third, high-cadence (6× night⁻¹) data from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) show a double-peaked optical light curve, the first peak from shock cooling of extended low-mass material (mass M_e < 10⁻² M_⊙ at radius R_e > 10¹² cm) and the second peak from the radioactive decay of ⁵⁶Ni. SN 2020bvc is the first double-peaked Ic-BL SN discovered without a GRB trigger, so it is noteworthy that it shows X-ray and radio emission similar to LLGRB SNe. For four of the five other nearby (z ≾ 0.05) Ic-BL SNe with ZTF high-cadence data, we rule out a first peak like that seen in SN 2006aj and SN 2020bvc, i.e., that lasts ≈1 day and reaches a peak luminosity M ≈ −18. Follow-up X-ray and radio observations of Ic-BL SNe with well-sampled early optical light curves will establish whether double-peaked optical light curves are indeed predictive of LLGRB-like X-ray and radio emission.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Corsi, Alessandra0000-0001-8104-3536
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Anand, Shreya0000-0003-3768-7515
Barbarino, Cristina0000-0002-3821-6144
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Bruch, Rachel J.0000-0001-8208-2473
Burns, Eric0000-0001-8018-5348
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Dekany, Richard0000-0002-5884-7867
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Frederiks, Dmitry D.0000-0002-1153-6340
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Goldstein, Daniel A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Martikainen, Julia0000-0003-2211-4001
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Savchenko, Volodymyr0000-0001-6353-0808
Shupe, David L.0000-0003-4401-0430
Soumagnac, Maayane T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Strotjohann, Nora L.0000-0002-4667-6730
Svinkin, Dmitry S.0000-0002-2208-2196
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Tartaglia, Leonardo0000-0003-3433-1492
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Alternate Title:SN2020bvc: a Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova with a Double-peaked Optical Light Curve and a Luminous X-ray and Radio Counterpart
Additional Information:© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 April 21; revised 2020 July 10; accepted 2020 July 13; published 2020 October 14. It is a pleasure to thank the anonymous referee for detailed feedback that greatly improved the clarity and thoroughness of the paper. A.Y.Q.H. was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant No. 1545949, as well as by the Heising-Simons Foundation. She would like to thank A. Jaodand and M. Brightman for their assistance with the Chandra data reduction and D. Dong for his help with imaging VLA data. She would also like to thank D. Khatami and D. Kasen for useful discussions regarding shock-cooling emission and E. Ofek for his detailed reading of the manuscript. R.L. is supported by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 European Union (EU) Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). A.G.Y.'s research is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant, and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as the Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, the Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela, and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; A.G.Y. is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. C.F. gratefully acknowledges the support of his research by the Heising-Simons Foundation (#2018–0907). Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48 inch and the 60 inch telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. The ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This research has made use of software provided by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) in the application packages CIAO and Sherpa. This work made use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1106171. The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This work made use of the data products generated by the NYU SN group and released under DOI:10.5281/zenodo.58767, available at Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. The SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS website is The SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration, including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, the Korean Participation Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), the National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, the University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, the United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the University of Arizona, the University of Colorado Boulder, the University of Oxford, the University of Portsmouth, the University of Utah, the University of Virginia, the University of Washington, the University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. Facilities: CXO - Chandra X-ray Observatory satellite, Hale - Palomar Observatory's 5.1m Hale Telescope, Swift - Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, EVLA - Expanded Very Large Array, VLA - Very Large Array, Liverpool:2m - , PO:1.2 m - , PO:1.5 m - , NOT. - Software: CASA (McMullin et al. 2007), astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), Sherpa (Freeman et al. 2011).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Heising-Simons Foundation2018-0907
Marie Curie FellowshipH2020-MSCA-IF-2017- 794467
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Israel Ministry of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment FundUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina Gardner FundUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Smithsonian Astrophysical ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Radio transient sources ; High energy astrophysics ; Transient sources ; Core-collapse supernovae ; Supernovae ; Type Ic supernovae ; X-ray transient sources ; Surveys ; Gamma-ray bursts
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Radio transient sources (2008); High energy astrophysics (739); Transient sources (1851); Core-collapse supernovae (304); Supernovae (1668); Type Ic supernovae (1730); X-ray transient sources (1852); Gamma-ray bursts
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200604-151430667
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Anna Y. Q. Ho et al 2020 ApJ 902 86
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103708
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Jun 2020 17:20
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:24

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