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Connection of supernovae 2002ap, 2003gd, 2013ej, and 2019krl in M 74 with atomic gas accretion and spiral structure

Michałowski, Michał J. and Gotkiewicz, Natalia and Hjorth, Jens and Kamphuis, Peter (2020) Connection of supernovae 2002ap, 2003gd, 2013ej, and 2019krl in M 74 with atomic gas accretion and spiral structure. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 638 . Art. No. A47. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037692.

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Studying the nature of various types of supernovae (SNe) is important for our understanding of stellar evolution. Observations of atomic and molecular gas in the host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and SNe have recently been used to learn about the nature of the explosions themselves and the star formation events during which their progenitors were born. Based on archival data for M 74, which previously has not been investigated in the context of SN positions, we report the gas properties in the environment of the broad-lined type Ic (Ic-BL) SN 2002ap and the type II SNe 2003gd, 2013ej, and 2019krl. The SN 2002ap is located at the end of an off-centre, asymmetric, 55 kpc-long HI extension containing 7.5% of the total atomic gas in M 74, interpreted as a signature of external gas accretion. It is the fourth known case of an explosion of a presumably massive star located close to a concentration of atomic gas (after GRBs 980425, 060505, and SN 2009bb). It is unlikely that all these associations are random (at a 3σ significance), so the case of SN 2002ap adds to the evidence that the birth of the progenitors of type Ic-BL SNe and GRBs is connected with the accretion of atomic gas from the intergalactic medium. The HI extension could come from tidally disrupted companions of M 74, or be a remnant of a galaxy or a gas cloud that accreted entirely from the intragroup medium. The other (type II) SNe in M 74 are located at the outside edge of a spiral arm. This suggests that either their progenitors were born when gas was piling up there or that the SN progenitors moved away from the arm due to their orbital motions. These type II SNe do not seem to be related to gas accretion.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Michałowski, Michał J.0000-0001-9033-4140
Hjorth, Jens0000-0002-4571-2306
Kamphuis, Peter0000-0002-5425-6074
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 9 February 2020; Accepted 13 April 2020; Published online 09 June 2020. We wish to thank the referee for careful and important suggestions, Joanna Baradziej and Phillip Hopkins for discussion and comments, and Frank Briggs for permission to use the figure from Kamphuis & Briggs (1992). M.J.M. acknowledges the support of the National Science Centre, Poland through the SONATA BIS grant 2018/30/E/ST9/00208, and of the Polish-US Fulbcenter Commission. J.H. was supported by a VILLUM FONDEN Investigator grant (project number 16599). P.K. is partially supported by the BMBF project 05A17PC2 for D-MeerKAT. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. This work made use of HERACLES, “The HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey”. This research has made use of data obtained from the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), provided by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. This research has made use of the Open Supernova Catalog (; NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; SAOImage DS9, developed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (Joye & Mandel 2003); Edward Wcenter cosmology calculator (Wcenter 2006); the WebPlotDigitizer of Ankit Rohatgi (; and NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Science Centre (Poland)2018/30/E/ST9/00208
Polish-US Fulbcenter CommissionUNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)05A17PC2
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution – galaxies: individual: M74 – galaxies: ISM – galaxies: star formation – supernovae: individual: 2002ap – radio lines: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200609-135136946
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Official Citation:Connection of supernovae 2002ap, 2003gd, 2013ej, and 2019krl in M 74 with atomic gas accretion and spiral structure. Michał J. Michałowski, Natalia Gotkiewicz, Jens Hjorth and Peter Kamphuis. A&A, 638 (2020) A47; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103801
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Jun 2020 21:02
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:25

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