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Optimal Design of an Electrochemical Reactor for Blackwater Treatment

Varigala, Siva and Krishnaswamy, Srinivas and Lohia, Chandra P. and Hegarty-Craver, Meghan and Grego, Sonia and Luettgen, Michael and Cid, Clément A. (2021) Optimal Design of an Electrochemical Reactor for Blackwater Treatment. Water Environment Research, 93 (1). pp. 148-158. ISSN 1061-4303.

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Electrolysis of blackwater for disinfection and nutrient removal is a portable and scalable technology that can lessen the need for cities to construct large‐scale wastewater treatment infrastructure and enable the safe onsite reuse of blackwater. Several systems for treating wastewater from single toilets are described in the literature, but there are few examples of systems designed to use electrolysis to treat blackwater from nearby toilets, which is a situation more common in densely packed urban living environments. In order to scale a single toilet electrolysis system to one that could service multiple toilets, computational fluid dynamic analysis was used to optimize the electrochemical reactor design, and laboratory and field‐testing were used to confirm results. Design efforts included optimization of the reactor shape and mixing to improve treatment efficiency, as well as automated cleaning and salt injection to reduce maintenance and service requirements.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Varigala, Siva0000-0002-6783-7652
Hegarty-Craver, Meghan0000-0002-0919-6906
Grego, Sonia0000-0003-1734-2157
Luettgen, Michael0000-0001-8930-0381
Cid, Clément A.0000-0002-7293-035X
Additional Information:© 2020 The Authors. Water Environment Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Water Environment Federation. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Issue Online: 24 December 2020; Version of Record online: 05 July 2020; Accepted manuscript online: 09 June 2020; Manuscript accepted: 30 May 2020; Manuscript revised: 22 May 2020; Manuscript received: 28 February 2020. This work was supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, contract service agreement ID 43951 (STeP project) and grant OPP1170650 to Kohler and OPP1192374 to Caltech. We gratefully acknowledge PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore for supporting the test site installation and operation on their campus. We acknowledge the contribution of Adrian Berg to implement the Venturi salt injection system. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. Data availability statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation43951
Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationOPP1170650
Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationOPP1192374
Subject Keywords:blackwater treatment; electrode cleaning; mineral deposits; reverse polarity; uniform mixing
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200609-145216163
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Official Citation:Varigala, S., Krishnaswamy, S., Lohia, C.P., Hegarty‐Craver, M., Grego, S., Luettgen, M. and Cid, C.A. (2021), Optimal design of an electrochemical reactor for blackwater treatment. Water Environ Res, 93: 148-158.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103804
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Jun 2020 22:01
Last Modified:08 Jan 2021 21:02

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