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The First Habitable Zone Earth-Sized Planet From TESS II: Spitzer Confirms TOI-700 d

Rodriguez, Joseph E. and Vanderburg, Andrew and Zieba, Sebastian and Kreidberg, Laura and Morley, Caroline V. and Kane, Stephen R. and Spencer, Alton and Quinn, Samuel N. and Eastman, Jason D. and Cloutier, Ryan and Huang, Chelsea X. and Collins, Karen A. and Mann, Andrew W. and Gilbert, Emily and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Quintana, Elisa V. and Barclay, Thomas and Suissa, Gabrielle and Kopparapu, Ravi kumar and Dressing, Courtney D. and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland K. and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Berta-Thompson, Zachory and Boyd, Patricia T. and Charbonneau, David and Caldwell, Douglas A. and Chiang, Eugene and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Ciardi, David R. and Colón, Knicole D. and Doty, John and Gan, Tianjun and Guerrero, Natalia and Günther, Maximilian N. and Lee, Eve J. and Levine, Alan M. and Lopez, Eric and Muirhead, Philip S. and Newton, Elisabeth and Rose, Mark E. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Villaseñor, Jesus Noel (2020) The First Habitable Zone Earth-Sized Planet From TESS II: Spitzer Confirms TOI-700 d. Astronomical Journal, 160 (3). Art. No. 117. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aba4b3.

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We present Spitzer 4.5 μm observations of the transit of TOI-700 d, a habitable-zone Earth-sized planet in a multiplanet system transiting a nearby M-dwarf star (TIC 150428135, 2MASS J06282325–6534456). TOI-700 d has a radius of 1.144^(+0.062)_(-0.061) R⊕ and orbits within its host star's conservative habitable zone with a period of 37.42 days (T_(eq) ~ 269 K). TOI-700 also hosts two small inner planets (R_b = 1.037^(+0.0065)_(-0.064) R⊕ and R_c = 2.65^(+0.16)_(-0.15) R⊕) with periods of 9.98 and 16.05 days, respectively. Our Spitzer observations confirm the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) detection of TOI-700 d and remove any remaining doubt that it is a genuine planet. We analyze the Spitzer light curve combined with the 11 sectors of TESS observations and a transit of TOI-700 c from the LCOGT network to determine the full system parameters. Although studying the atmosphere of TOI-700 d is not likely feasible with upcoming facilities, it may be possible to measure the mass of TOI-700 d using state-of-the-art radial velocity (RV) instruments (expected RV semiamplitude of ~70 cm s⁻¹).

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Rodriguez, Joseph E.0000-0001-8812-0565
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Zieba, Sebastian0000-0003-0562-6750
Kreidberg, Laura0000-0003-0514-1147
Morley, Caroline V.0000-0002-4404-0456
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Eastman, Jason D.0000-0003-3773-5142
Cloutier, Ryan0000-0001-5383-9393
Huang, Chelsea X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Mann, Andrew W.0000-0003-3654-1602
Gilbert, Emily0000-0002-0388-8004
Schlieder, Joshua E.0000-0001-5347-7062
Quintana, Elisa V.0000-0003-1309-2904
Barclay, Thomas0000-0001-7139-2724
Suissa, Gabrielle0000-0003-4471-1042
Kopparapu, Ravi kumar0000-0002-5893-2471
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland K.0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Berta-Thompson, Zachory0000-0002-3321-4924
Boyd, Patricia T.0000-0003-0442-4284
Charbonneau, David0000-0002-9003-484X
Caldwell, Douglas A.0000-0003-1963-9616
Chiang, Eugene0000-0002-6246-2310
Christiansen, Jessie L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Colón, Knicole D.0000-0001-8020-7121
Doty, John0000-0003-2996-8421
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Guerrero, Natalia0000-0002-5169-9427
Günther, Maximilian N.0000-0002-3164-9086
Lee, Eve J.0000-0002-1228-9820
Levine, Alan M.0000-0001-8172-0453
Lopez, Eric0000-0002-7727-4603
Muirhead, Philip S.0000-0002-0638-8822
Newton, Elisabeth0000-0003-4150-841X
Rose, Mark E.0000-0003-4724-745X
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 December 20; revised 2020 May 22; accepted 2020 May 26; published 2020 August 14. A.V.'s work was performed under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. M.N.G. acknowledges support from MIT's Kavli Institute as a Juan Carlos Torres Fellow. C.D.D. acknowledges support from the NASA TESS Guest Investigator Program through grant 80NSSC18K1583. E.D.L. is thankful for support from GSFC Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration (SEEC), which is funded by the NASA Planetary Science Divisions Internal Scientist Funding Model. J.N.W. thanks the Heising-Simons Foundation for support. E.A.G. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant #1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; her participation in the program has benefited this work. E.A.G. is thankful for support from GSFC Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration (SEEC), which is funded by the NASA Planetary Science Division's Internal Scientist Funding Model. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This research has made use of SAO/NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC; Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This work makes use of observations from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We thank Kevin Stevenson for making the POET pipeline open source and freely available on GitHub. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which are operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This paper includes observations obtained under Gemini program GN-2018B-LP-101. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. Facilities: TESS - , Spitzer - , LCOGT - , Gaia - , MAST - . Software: EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2013, 2019), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), BATMAN (Kreidberg 2015), Forecaster (Chen & Kipping 2017).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanets ; Habitable planets ; Habitable zone ; Low mass stars ; Antarctic observatories ; Exoplanet astronomy ; Exoplanet detection methods ; Exoplanet systems
Issue or Number:3
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanets (498); Habitable planets (695); Habitable zone (696); Low mass stars (2050); Antarctic observatories (47); Exoplanet astronomy (486); Exoplanet detection methods (489); Exoplanet systems (484)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200611-113700214
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Joseph E. Rodriguez et al 2020 AJ 160 117
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103845
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:12 Jun 2020 14:30
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:25

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