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TESS Discovery of a Super-Earth and Three Sub-Neptunes Hosted by the Bright, Sun-like Star HD 108236

Daylan, Tansu and Pinglé, Kartik and Wright, Jasmine and Günther, Maximilian N. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Kane, Stephen R. and Vanderburg, Andrew and Jontof-Hutter, Daniel and Rodriguez, Joseph E. and Shporer, Avi and Huang, Chelsea X. and Mikal-Evans, Thomas and Badenas-Agusti, Mariona and Collins, Karen A. and Rackham, Benjamin V. and Quinn, Samuel N. and Cloutier, Ryan and Collins, Kevin I. and Guerra, Pere and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Kielkopf, John F. and Massey, Bob and Schwarz, Richard P. and Charbonneau, David and Lissauer, Jack J. and Irwin, Jonathan M. and Baştürk, Özgür and Fulton, Benjamin and Soubkiou, Abderahmane and Zouhair, Benkhaldoun and Howell, Steve B. and Ziegler, Carl and Briceño, César and Law, Nicholas and Mann, Andrew W. and Scott, Nic and Furlan, Elise and Ciardi, David R. and Matson, Rachel and Hellier, Coel and Anderson, David R. and Butler, R. Paul and Crane, Jeffery D. and Teske, Joanna K. and Schectman, Stephen A. and Kristiansen, Martti H. and Terentev, Ivan A. and Schwengeler, Hans Martin and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. and Bouma, Luke G. and Fong, William and Furesz, Gabor and Henze, Christopher E. and Morgan, Edward H. and Quintana, Elisa and Ting, Eric B. and Twicken, Joseph D. (2021) TESS Discovery of a Super-Earth and Three Sub-Neptunes Hosted by the Bright, Sun-like Star HD 108236. Astronomical Journal, 161 (2). Art. No. 85. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/abd73e.

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We report the discovery and validation of four extrasolar planets hosted by the nearby, bright, Sun-like (G3V) star HD 108236 using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). We present transit photometry, reconnaissance, and precise Doppler spectroscopy, as well as high-resolution imaging, to validate the planetary nature of the objects transiting HD 108236, also known as the TESS Object of Interest (TOI) 1233. The innermost planet is a possibly rocky super-Earth with a period of 3.79523^(+0.00047)_(−0.00044) days and has a radius of 1.586 ± 0.098 R_⊕. The outer planets are sub-Neptunes, with potential gaseous envelopes, having radii of 2.068^(+0.10)_(−0.091) R_⊕, 2.72 ± 0.11 R_⊕, and 3.12^(+0.13)_(−0.12) R_⊕ and periods of 6.20370^(+0.00064)_(−0.00052) days, 14.17555^(+0.00099)_(−0.0011) days, and 19.5917^(+0.0022)_(−0.0020) days, respectively. With V and K_s magnitudes of 9.2 and 7.6, respectively, the bright host star makes the transiting planets favorable targets for mass measurements and, potentially, for atmospheric characterization via transmission spectroscopy. HD 108236 is the brightest Sun-like star in the visual (V) band known to host four or more transiting exoplanets. The discovered planets span a broad range of planetary radii and equilibrium temperatures and share a common history of insolation from a Sun-like star (R_★ = 0.888 ± 0.017 R_⊙, T_(eff) = 5730 ± 50 K), making HD 108236 an exciting, opportune cosmic laboratory for testing models of planet formation and evolution.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Daylan, Tansu0000-0002-6939-9211
Pinglé, Kartik0000-0001-8965-1472
Wright, Jasmine0000-0002-0179-2105
Günther, Maximilian N.0000-0002-3164-9086
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Jontof-Hutter, Daniel0000-0002-6227-7510
Rodriguez, Joseph E.0000-0001-8812-0565
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Huang, Chelsea X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Mikal-Evans, Thomas0000-0001-5442-1300
Badenas-Agusti, Mariona0000-0003-4903-567X
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Rackham, Benjamin V.0000-0002-3627-1676
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Cloutier, Ryan0000-0001-5383-9393
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Guerra, Pere0000-0002-4308-2339
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Kielkopf, John F.0000-0003-0497-2651
Massey, Bob0000-0001-8879-7138
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Charbonneau, David0000-0002-9003-484X
Lissauer, Jack J.0000-0001-6513-1659
Baştürk, Özgür0000-0002-4746-0181
Fulton, Benjamin0000-0003-3504-5316
Soubkiou, Abderahmane0000-0002-0345-2147
Zouhair, Benkhaldoun0000-0001-6285-9847
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Ziegler, Carl0000-0002-0619-7639
Briceño, César0000-0001-7124-4094
Law, Nicholas0000-0001-9380-6457
Mann, Andrew W.0000-0003-3654-1602
Scott, Nic0000-0003-1038-9702
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Matson, Rachel0000-0001-7233-7508
Hellier, Coel0000-0002-3439-1439
Anderson, David R.0000-0001-7416-7522
Butler, R. Paul0000-0003-1305-3761
Crane, Jeffery D.0000-0002-5226-787X
Schectman, Stephen A.0000-0002-8681-6136
Kristiansen, Martti H.0000-0002-2607-138X
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.0000-0002-3321-4924
Bouma, Luke G.0000-0002-0514-5538
Fong, William0000-0001-7416-7522
Morgan, Edward H.0000-0003-1447-6344
Quintana, Elisa0000-0003-1309-2904
Ting, Eric B.0000-0002-8219-9505
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Additional Information:© 2021 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 April 23; revised 2020 November 19; accepted 2020 December 29; published 2021 January 25. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has also made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. The MEarth Team gratefully acknowledges funding from the David and Lucile Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering (awarded to D.C.). This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-0807690, AST-1109468, AST-1004488 (Alan T. Waterman Award), and AST-1616624. This work is made possible by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation. This material is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. 80NSSC18K0476 issued through the XRP Program. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument Zorro. Zorro was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. Zorro was mounted on the Gemini South telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Based in part on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovações do Brasil (MCTI/LNA), the US National Science Foundation's NOIRLab, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant 18-XRP18_2-0048. T.D. acknowledges support from MIT's Kavli Institute as a Kavli postdoctoral fellow. M.N.G. acknowledges support from MIT's Kavli Institute as a Torres postdoctoral fellow. Contributions from K.P. and J.W. were made through the Harvard-MIT Science Research Mentoring Program (Graur 2018), led by Clara Sousa-Silva, through the 51 Pegasi b Fellowship, and Or Graur. Support for this program is provided by the National Science Foundation under award AST-1602595, City of Cambridge, the John G. Wolbach Library, Cambridge Rotary, Heising-Simons Foundation, and generous individuals. We thank Edward Bryant and the NGTS (Wheatley et al. 2018) team for their HD 108236 observation attempts. Facilities: TESS - , LCOGT - Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Magellan II - , SMARTS - , Gemini - , SOAR. - Software: python (van Rossum 1995), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), seaborn (, numpy (van der Walt et al. 2011), scipy (Jones et al. 2001), allesfitter (Günther & Daylan 2019, 2020; J. T. Teske et al. 2021, in preparation), ellc (Maxted 2016), EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2019), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017), corner (Foreman-Mackey 2016). dynesty (Speagle 2020), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), Tapir (Jensen 2013), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020), Transit Least Squares (Hippke & Heller 2019), astroquery (Ginsburg et al. 2019), Lightkurve (Lightkurve Collaboration et al. 2018), pymc3 (Salvatier et al. 2016).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASA18-XRP18 2-0048
MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet astronomy ; Exoplanet detection methods ; Exoplanet atmospheres ; Exoplanet dynamics
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet astronomy (486); Exoplanet detection methods (489); Exoplanet atmospheres (487); Exoplanet dynamics (490)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200611-113726508
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Tansu Daylan et al 2021 AJ 161 85
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103852
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:11 Jun 2020 19:20
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:25

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