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Unraveling the Complex Behavior of Mrk 421 with Simultaneous X-Ray and VHE Observations during an Extreme Flaring Activity in 2013 April

Acciari, V. A. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Arbet Engels, A. and Baack, D. and Babić, A. and Banerjee, B. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bellizzi, L. K. and Bernardini, E. and Berti, A. and Besenrieder, J. and Bhattacharyya, W. and Bigongiari, C. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bonnoli, G. and Bošnjak, Ž. and Busetto, G. and Carosi, R. and Ceribella, G. and Cerruti, M. and Chai, Y. and Chilingarian, A. and Cikota, S. and Colak, S. M. and Colin, U. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and D’Elia, V. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Lotto, B. and Del Puppo, F. and Delfino, M. and Delgado, J. and Depaoli, D. and Di Pierro, F. and Di Venere, L. and Do Souto Espiñeira, E. and Dominis Prester, D. and Donini, A. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Elsaesser, D. and Fallah Ramazani, V. and Fattorini, A. and Ferrara, G. and Foffano, L. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Fruck, C. and Fukami, S. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Gasparyan, S. and Gaug, M. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Gliwny, P. and Godinović, N. and Green, D. and Hadasch, D. and Hahn, A. and Hassan, T. and Herrera, J. and Hoang, J. and Hrupec, D. and Hütten, M. and Inada, T. and Inoue, S. and Ishio, K. and Iwamura, Y. and Jouvin, L. and Kajiwara, Y. and Kerszberg, D. and Kobayashi, Y. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and Lamastra, A. and Lelas, D. and Leone, F. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and Longo, F. and López, M. and López-Coto, R. and López-Oramas, A. and Loporchio, S. and Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B. and Maggio, C. and Majumdar, P. and Makariev, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Maneva, G. and Manganaro, M. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Mender, S. and Mićanović, S. and Miceli, D. and Miener, T. and Minev, M. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Molina, E. and Moralejo, A. and Morcuende, D. and Moreno, V. and Moretti, E. and Munar-Adrover, P. and Neustroev, V. and Nigro, C. and Nilsson, K. and Ninci, D. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Nogués, L. and Nozaki, S. and Ohtani, Y. and Oka, T. and Otero-Santos, J. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Pavletić, L. and Peñil, P. and Peresano, M. and Persic, M. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Puljak, I. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Righi, C. and Rugliancich, A. and Saha, L. and Sahakyan, N. and Saito, T. and Sakurai, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schleicher, B. and Schmidt, K. and Schweizer, T. and Sitarek, J. and Šnidarić, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Spolon, A. and Stamerra, A. and Strom, D. and Strzys, M. and Suda, Y. and Surić, T. and Takahashi, M. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Teshima, M. and Torres-Albà, N. and Tosti, L. and van Scherpenberg, J. and Vanzo, G. and Vazquez Acosta, M. and Ventura, S. and Verguilov, V. and Vigorito, C. F. and Vitale, V. and Vovk, I. and Will, M. and Zarić, D. and Petropoulou, M. and Finke, J. and D’Ammando, F. and Baloković, M. and Madejski, G. and Mori, K. and Puccetti, Simonetta and Leto, C. and Perri, M. and Verrecchia, F. and Villata, M. and Raiteri, C. M. and Agudo, I. and Bachev, R. and Berdyugin, A. and Blinov, D. A. and Chanishvili, R. and Chen, W. P. and Chigladze, R. and Damljanovic, G. and Eswaraiah, C. and Grishina, T. S. and Ibryamov, S. and Jordan, B. and Jorstad, S. G. and Joshi, M. and Kopatskaya, E. N. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Kurtanidze, S. O. and Larionova, E. G. and Larionova, L. V. and Larionov, V. M. and Latev, G. and Lin, H. C. and Marscher, A. P. and Mokrushina, A. A. and Morozova, D. A. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Semkov, E. and Smith, P. S. and Strigachev, A. and Troitskaya, Yu. V. and Troitsky, I. S. and Vince, O. and Barnes, J. and Güver, T. and Moody, J. W. and Sadun, A. C. and Hovatta, T. and Richards, J. L. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Readhead, A. C. R. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Tornikoski, M. and Tammi, J. and Ramakrishnan, V. and Reinthal, R. (2020) Unraveling the Complex Behavior of Mrk 421 with Simultaneous X-Ray and VHE Observations during an Extreme Flaring Activity in 2013 April. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 248 (2). Art. No. 29. ISSN 1538-4365. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab89b5.

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We report on a multiband variability and correlation study of the TeV blazar Mrk 421 during an exceptional flaring activity observed from 2013 April 11 to 19. The study uses, among others, data from GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT), Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Fermi Large Area Telescope, Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS), and Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC). The large blazar activity and the 43 hr of simultaneous NuSTAR and MAGIC/VERITAS observations permitted variability studies on 15 minute time bins over three X-ray bands (3–7 keV, 7–30 keV, and 30–80 keV) and three very-high-energy (VHE; >0.1 TeV) gamma-ray bands (0.2–0.4 TeV, 0.4–0.8 TeV, and >0.8 TeV). We detected substantial flux variations on multi-hour and sub-hour timescales in all of the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray bands. The characteristics of the sub-hour flux variations are essentially energy independent, while the multi-hour flux variations can have a strong dependence on the energy of the X-rays and the VHE gamma-rays. The three VHE bands and the three X-ray bands are positively correlated with no time lag, but the strength and characteristics of the correlation change substantially over time and across energy bands. Our findings favor multi-zone scenarios for explaining the achromatic/chromatic variability of the fast/slow components of the light curves, as well as the changes in the flux–flux correlation on day-long timescales. We interpret these results within a magnetic reconnection scenario, where the multi-hour flux variations are dominated by the combined emission from various plasmoids of different sizes and velocities, while the sub-hour flux variations are dominated by the emission from a single small plasmoid moving across the magnetic reconnection layer.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Acciari, V. A.0000-0001-8307-2007
Ansoldi, S.0000-0002-5613-7693
Antonelli, L. A.0000-0002-5037-9034
Arbet Engels, A.0000-0001-9076-9582
Baack, D.0000-0002-2311-4460
Babić, A.0000-0002-1444-5604
Banerjee, B.0000-0002-8008-2485
Barres de Almeida, U.0000-0001-7909-588X
Barrio, J. A.0000-0002-0965-0259
Becerra González, J.0000-0002-6729-9022
Bednarek, W.0000-0003-0605-108X
Bernardini, E.0000-0003-3108-1141
Berti, A.0000-0003-0396-4190
Bhattacharyya, W.0000-0003-4751-0414
Bigongiari, C.0000-0003-3293-8522
Biland, A.0000-0002-1288-833X
Blanch, O.0000-0002-8380-1633
Bonnoli, G.0000-0003-2464-9077
Bošnjak, Ž.0000-0001-6536-0320
Busetto, G.0000-0002-2687-6380
Carosi, R.0000-0002-4137-4370
Cerruti, M.0000-0001-7891-699X
Chai, Y.0000-0003-2816-2821
Chilingarian, A.0000-0002-2018-9715
Colak, S. M.0000-0001-7793-3106
Colombo, E.0000-0002-3700-3745
Contreras, J. L.0000-0001-7282-2394
Cortina, J.0000-0003-4576-0452
Covino, S.0000-0001-9078-5507
D’Elia, V.0000-0002-7320-5862
Dazzi, F.0000-0001-5409-6544
De Angelis, A.0000-0002-3288-2517
De Lotto, B.0000-0003-3624-4480
Delfino, M.0000-0002-9468-4751
Delgado, J.0000-0002-0166-5464
Depaoli, D.0000-0002-2672-4141
Di Pierro, F.0000-0003-4861-432X
Di Venere, L.0000-0003-0703-824X
Do Souto Espiñeira, E.0000-0001-6974-2676
Dominis Prester, D.0000-0002-9880-5039
Donini, A.0000-0002-3066-724X
Dorner, D.0000-0001-8823-479X
Doro, M.0000-0001-9104-3214
Elsaesser, D.0000-0001-6796-3205
Fallah Ramazani, V.0000-0001-8991-7744
Ferrara, G.0000-0002-1137-6252
Foffano, L.0000-0002-0709-9707
Fonseca, M. V.0000-0003-2235-0725
Font, L.0000-0003-2109-5961
Fruck, C.0000-0001-5880-7518
García López, R. J.0000-0002-8204-6832
Garczarczyk, M.0000-0002-0445-4566
Gaug, M.0000-0001-8442-7877
Giglietto, N.0000-0002-9021-2888
Giordano, F.0000-0002-8651-2394
Gliwny, P.0000-0002-4183-391X
Godinović, N.0000-0002-4674-9450
Green, D.0000-0003-0768-2203
Hadasch, D.0000-0001-8663-6461
Hahn, A.0000-0003-0827-5642
Hassan, T.0000-0002-4758-9196
Herrera, J.0000-0002-3771-4918
Hoang, J.0000-0001-5591-5927
Hrupec, D.0000-0002-7027-5021
Hütten, M.0000-0002-2133-5251
Inoue, S.0000-0003-1096-9424
Jouvin, L.0000-0001-5119-8537
Kerszberg, D.0000-0002-5289-1509
Kubo, H.0000-0001-9159-9853
Kushida, J.0000-0002-8002-8585
Lamastra, A.0000-0003-2403-913X
Lelas, D.0000-0002-8269-5760
Leone, F.0000-0001-7626-3788
Lindfors, E.0000-0002-9155-6199
Lombardi, S.0000-0002-6336-865X
Longo, F.0000-0003-2501-2270
López, M.0000-0002-8791-7908
López-Coto, R.0000-0002-3882-9477
López-Oramas, A.0000-0003-4603-1884
Loporchio, S.0000-0003-4457-5431
Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B.0000-0002-6395-3410
Maggio, C.0000-0003-0670-7771
Majumdar, P.0000-0002-5481-5040
Makariev, M.0000-0002-1622-3116
Mallamaci, M.0000-0003-4068-0496
Maneva, G.0000-0002-5959-4179
Manganaro, M.0000-0003-1530-3031
Mannheim, K.0000-0002-2950-6641
Mariotti, M.0000-0003-3297-4128
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Mazin, D.0000-0002-2010-4005
Mender, S.0000-0002-0755-0609
Mićanović, S.0000-0002-0076-3134
Miceli, D.0000-0002-2686-0098
Miranda, J. M.0000-0002-1472-9690
Mirzoyan, R.0000-0003-0163-7233
Molina, E.0000-0003-1204-5516
Moralejo, A.0000-0002-1344-9080
Morcuende, D.0000-0001-9400-0922
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Neustroev, V.0000-0003-4772-595X
Nigro, C.0000-0001-8375-1907
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Ninci, D.0000-0002-5031-1849
Nishijima, K.0000-0002-1830-4251
Noda, K.0000-0003-1397-6478
Nogués, L.0000-0002-6482-1671
Nozaki, S.0000-0002-6246-2767
Oka, T.0000-0002-9924-9978
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Palatiello, M.0000-0002-4124-5747
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Paoletti, R.0000-0003-0158-2826
Paredes, J. M.0000-0002-1566-9044
Pavletić, L.0000-0002-9926-0405
Peresano, M.0000-0002-7537-7334
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Prada Moroni, P. G.0000-0001-9712-9916
Prandini, E.0000-0003-4502-9053
Puljak, I.0000-0001-7387-3812
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van Scherpenberg, J.0000-0002-6173-867X
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Will, M.0000-0002-7504-2083
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Petropoulou, M.0000-0001-6640-0179
Finke, J.0000-0001-5941-7933
D’Ammando, F.0000-0001-7618-7527
Baloković, M.0000-0003-0476-6647
Verrecchia, F.0000-0003-3455-5082
Villata, M.0000-0003-1743-6946
Raiteri, C. M.0000-0003-1784-2784
Agudo, I.0000-0002-3777-6182
Jorstad, S. G.0000-0001-6158-1708
Kurtanidze, O. M.0000-0001-5385-0576
Marscher, A. P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Güver, T.0000-0002-3531-9842
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Max-Moerbeck, W.0000-0002-5491-5244
Readhead, A. C. R.0000-0001-9152-961X
Tornikoski, M.0000-0003-1249-6026
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 December 5; revised 2020 January 18; accepted 2020 January 23; published 2020 June 10. The MAGIC collaboration would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P, and FPA201790566REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, the Japanese JSPS and MEXT, the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018 and the Academy of Finland grant No. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382, and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Études Spatiales in France. This work made use of data from the NuSTAR mission, a project led by the California Institute of Technology, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank the NuSTAR Operations, Software, and Calibration teams for support with the execution and analysis of these observations. This research has made use of the NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTARDAS) jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC; Italy) and the California Institute of Technology (USA). This research has made use of the XRT Data Analysis Software (XRTDAS) developed under the responsibility of the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Italy. D.P. and A.B. are grateful to Amy Furniss and Wystan Benbow for providing the VERITAS VHE gamma-ray fluxes and for useful discussions about them. M.P. acknowledges support from the Lyman Jr. Spitzer Postdoctoral Fellowship and NASA Fermi grant No. 80NSSC18K1745, and J.F. is partially supported by NASA under contract S-15633Y. M.B. acknowledges support from NASA Headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program (grant NNX14AQ07H) and the black hole Initiative at Harvard University, which is funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant GBMF8273) and in part by the John Templeton Foundation. This research was partially supported by the Bulgarian National Science Fund of the Ministry of Education and Science under grants DN 18-13/2017, DN 18-10/2017, KP-06-H28/3 (2018), and KP-06-PN38/1 (2019), as well as for the Spanish MIMECO (AYA2016-80889-P, RYC-2013-14511) and the IAA-CSIC "Severo Ochoa" program SEV-2017-0709. The St. Petersburg University team acknowledges support from Russian Science Foundation grant 17-12-01029. The Abastumani team acknowledges financial support of the project FR/638/6-320/12 by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation under contract 31/77. T.G. acknowledges support from Istanbul University (Project numbers 49429 and 48285), Bilim Akademisi (BAGEP program), and TUBITAK (project numbers 13AT100-431, 13AT100-466, and 13AT60-430). The Boston University effort was supported in part by NASA grants NNX12AO90G and NNX14AQ58G. Data from the Steward Observatory spectropolarimetric monitoring project were used in this paper. This program is supported by Fermi Guest Investigator grants NNX08AW56G, NNX09AU10G, NNX12AO93G, and NNX15AU81G. The OVRO 40 m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G and NNX11A043G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. The Metsähovi team acknowledges the support from the Academy of Finland to our observing projects (numbers 212656, 210338, 121148, and others). W.M. acknowledges support from CONICYT project Basal AFB-170002.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Fund (SNF)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-87859-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-85668-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-71042-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA201790566REDC
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)DO1-153/28.08.2018
Academy of Finland320045
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2015-0548
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)MDM-2014-0369
Croatian Science FoundationIP-2016-06-9782
University of Rijeka13.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NASA Earth and Space Science FellowshipNNX14AQ07H
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF8273
John Templeton FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)DN 18-13/2017
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)DN 18-10/2017
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)KP-06-H28/3
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)KP-06-PN38/1
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeRYC-2013-14511
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01029
Shota Rustaveli National Science FoundationFR/638/6-320/12
Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation31/77
Istanbul University49429
Istanbul University48285
Bilim AkademisiUNSPECIFIED
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)13AT100-431
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)13AT100-466
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)13AT60-430
Academy of Finland212656
Academy of Finland210338
Academy of Finland121148
Subject Keywords:BL Lacertae objects ; Blazars ; Active galaxies ; Markarian galaxies ; Gamma-ray detectors ; Gamma-rays ; Relativistic jets ; High energy astrophysics ; Observational astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: BL Lacertae objects (158); Blazars (164); Active galaxies (17); Markarian galaxies (1006); Gamma-ray detectors (630); Gamma-rays (637); Relativistic jets (1390); High energy astrophysics (739); Observational astronomy
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200612-080225979
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:V. A. Acciari et al 2020 ApJS 248 29
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:103862
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 Jun 2020 17:26
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:26

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