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A planet within the debris disk around the pre-main-sequence star AU Microscopii

Plavchan, Peter and Barclay, Thomas and Gagné, Jonathan and Gao, Peter and Cale, Bryson and Matzko, William and Dragomir, Diana and Quinn, Sam and Feliz, Dax and Stassun, Keivan and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Berardo, David A. and Latham, David W. and Tieu, Ben and Anglada-Escudé, Guillem and Ricker, George and Vanderspek, Roland and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Rinehart, Stephen and Krishnamurthy, Akshata and Dynes, Scott and Doty, John and Adams, Fred and Afanasev, Dennis A. and Beichman, Chas and Bottom, Mike and Bowler, Brendan P. and Brinkworth, Carolyn and Brown, Carolyn J. and Cancino, Andrew and Ciardi, David R. and Clampin, Mark and Clark, Jake T. and Collins, Karen and Davison, Cassy and Foreman-Mackey, Daniel and Furlan, Elise and Gaidos, Eric J. and Geneser, Claire and Giddens, Frank and Gilbert, Emily and Hall, Ryan and Hellier, Coel and Henry, Todd and Horner, Jonathan and Howard, Andrew W. and Huang, Chelsea and Huber, Joseph and Kane, Stephen R. and Kenworthy, Matthew and Kielkopf, John and Kipping, David and Klenke, Chris and Kruse, Ethan and Latouf, Natasha and Lowrance, Patrick and Mennesson, Bertrand and Mengel, Matthew and Mills, Sean M. and Morton, Tim and Narita, Norio and Newton, Elisabeth and Nishimoto, America and Okumura, Jack and Palle, Enric and Pepper, Joshua and Quintana, Elisa V. and Roberge, Aki and Roccatagliata, Veronica and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Tanner, Angelle and Teske, Johanna and Tinney, C. G. and Vanderburg, Andrew and von Braun, Kaspar and Walp, Bernie and Wang, Jason and Wang, Sharon Xuesong and Weigand, Denise and White, Russel and Wittenmyer, Robert A. and Wright, Duncan J. and Youngblood, Allison and Zhang, Hui and Zilberman, Perri (2020) A planet within the debris disk around the pre-main-sequence star AU Microscopii. Nature, 582 (7813). pp. 497-500. ISSN 0028-0836. PMCID PMC7323865.

[img] PDF (arXiv) - Accepted Version
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 1: TESS and Spitzer light curves for AU Mic centred on four transit events) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 2: MCMC corner plot for custom combined Spitzer and TESS light-curve analysis for AU Mic) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 3: One season (July to October 2007) of SuperWASP light curves for AU Mic from the NASA Exoplanet Archive, phase-folded to the rotation period of the star) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 4: Correlation plots of the standard HARPS stellar activity indicators with the RVs) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 5: Correlation plots of the HARPS activity indicators with each other) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 6: The HARPS RVs and standard activity indicators, phase folded to the rotation period of the star) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 7: RV time-series of AU Mic, with fitting residuals, and phased to the orbital period of AU Mic b) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 8: RADVEL MCMC corner plot for the model parameters for the iSHELL, HARPS and HIRES RV datasets) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Fig. 9: Photometric variability amplitudes obtained contemporaneously in four different bandpasses) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 1 Model comparison results) - Supplemental Material
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[img] MS Excel (Source Data Fig. 3) - Supplemental Material
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[img] MS Excel (Source Data Extended Data Fig. 1) - Supplemental Material
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[img] MS Excel (Source Data Extended Data Fig. 4) - Supplemental Material
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[img] MS Excel (Source Data Extended Data Fig. 7) - Supplemental Material
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[img] MS Excel (Source Data Extended Data Fig. 9) - Supplemental Material
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AU Microscopii (AU Mic) is the second closest pre-main-sequence star, at a distance of 9.79 parsecs and with an age of 22 million years. AU Mic possesses a relatively rare and spatially resolved edge-on debris disk extending from about 35 to 210 astronomical units from the star, and with clumps exhibiting non-Keplerian motion. Detection of newly formed planets around such a star is challenged by the presence of spots, plage, flares and other manifestations of magnetic ‘activity’ on the star. Here we report observations of a planet transiting AU Mic. The transiting planet, AU Mic b, has an orbital period of 8.46 days, an orbital distance of 0.07 astronomical units, a radius of 0.4 Jupiter radii, and a mass of less than 0.18 Jupiter masses at 3σ confidence. Our observations of a planet co-existing with a debris disk offer the opportunity to test the predictions of current models of planet formation and evolution.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access Correction ReadCube access - Publisher Correction Paper CentralArticle
Plavchan, Peter0000-0002-8864-1667
Barclay, Thomas0000-0001-7139-2724
Gagné, Jonathan0000-0002-2592-9612
Gao, Peter0000-0002-8518-9601
Cale, Bryson0000-0001-6279-0595
Dragomir, Diana0000-0003-2313-467X
Quinn, Sam0000-0002-8964-8377
Feliz, Dax0000-0002-2457-7889
Stassun, Keivan0000-0002-3481-9052
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Berardo, David A.0000-0001-6298-412X
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Anglada-Escudé, Guillem0000-0002-3645-5977
Ricker, George0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Krishnamurthy, Akshata0000-0002-8781-2743
Dynes, Scott0000-0001-7010-0937
Doty, John0000-0003-2996-8421
Adams, Fred0000-0002-8167-1767
Beichman, Chas0000-0002-5627-5471
Bottom, Mike0000-0003-1341-5531
Bowler, Brendan P.0000-0003-2649-2288
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Clampin, Mark0000-0003-4003-8348
Clark, Jake T.0000-0003-3964-4658
Collins, Karen0000-0001-6588-9574
Foreman-Mackey, Daniel0000-0002-9328-5652
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Gaidos, Eric J.0000-0002-5258-6846
Geneser, Claire0000-0001-9596-8820
Gilbert, Emily0000-0002-0388-8004
Hellier, Coel0000-0002-3439-1439
Henry, Todd0000-0002-9061-2865
Horner, Jonathan0000-0002-1160-7970
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Huang, Chelsea0000-0003-0918-7484
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Kenworthy, Matthew0000-0002-7064-8270
Kielkopf, John0000-0003-0497-2651
Kipping, David0000-0002-4365-7366
Kruse, Ethan0000-0002-0493-1342
Latouf, Natasha0000-0001-8079-1882
Lowrance, Patrick0000-0001-8014-0270
Mennesson, Bertrand0000-0003-4205-4800
Mengel, Matthew0000-0002-7830-6822
Mills, Sean M.0000-0002-4535-6241
Morton, Tim0000-0002-8537-5711
Narita, Norio0000-0001-8511-2981
Newton, Elisabeth0000-0003-4150-841X
Okumura, Jack0000-0002-4876-8540
Palle, Enric0000-0003-0987-1593
Pepper, Joshua0000-0002-3827-8417
Quintana, Elisa V.0000-0003-1309-2904
Roberge, Aki0000-0002-2989-3725
Roccatagliata, Veronica0000-0002-4650-594X
Schlieder, Joshua E.0000-0001-5347-7062
Tanner, Angelle0000-0002-0786-7307
Tinney, C. G.0000-0002-7595-0970
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
von Braun, Kaspar0000-0002-5823-4630
Walp, Bernie0000-0001-6792-8637
Wang, Jason0000-0003-0774-6502
Wang, Sharon Xuesong0000-0002-6937-9034
White, Russel0000-0001-5313-7498
Wittenmyer, Robert A.0000-0001-9957-9304
Wright, Duncan J.0000-0001-7294-5386
Youngblood, Allison0000-0002-1176-3391
Zhang, Hui0000-0003-3491-6394
Zilberman, Perri0000-0003-4714-0679
Alternate Title:A planet within the debris disk around the pre-main-sequence star AU Mic
Additional Information:© 2020 Springer Nature Limited. Received 16 February 2019; Accepted 17 March 2020; Published 24 June 2020. This work was supported by grants to P.P. from NASA (award 16-APROBES16-0020 and support from the Exoplanet Exploration Program) and the National Science Foundation (Astronomy and Astrophysics grant 1716202), the Mount Cuba Astronomical Foundation and George Mason University start-up funds.The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is operated by the University of Hawaii under contract NNH14CK55B with NASA. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission directorate. Some of the data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This research has made use of the services of the ESO Science Archive Facility, based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere with the HARPS spectrometer. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. MINERVA-Australis is supported by Australian Research Council LIEF Grant LE160100001, Discovery Grant DP180100972, Mount Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and institutional partners University of Southern Queensland, MIT, Nanjing University, George Mason University, University of Louisville, University of California Riverside, University of Florida and University of Texas at Austin. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant numbers JP18H01265 and 18H05439, JST PRESTO grant number JPMJPR1775, NSFC grant number 11673011 and MINECO grant ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R. D.D. acknowledges support for this work provided by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51372.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute. B.P.B. acknowledges support from National Science Foundation grant AST-1909209. J.W. and P.G. acknowledge support from the Heising-Simons Foundation 51 Pegasi b fellowship. Data availability: In addition to the figure data available, all raw spectroscopic data are available either in the associated observatory archive or upon request from the corresponding author. The TESS light curve is available at the MAST archive, and the SuperWASP light curve is available at the NASA Exoplanet Archive. Source data are provided with this paper. Code availability: All code that is not readily available on GitHub is available upon request. Author Contributions: P.P.: lead author, principal investigator for CSHELL/iSHELL gas cell and observations, analysis and interpretation. J.G., P.G., B.C., A.T., S.X.W., R.W.: CSHELL/iSHELL data reduction and forward model codes. W.M.: RADVEL analysis. T.B., D.D., S.Q., D.F.-M., E. Gilbert, C. Huang, D.K., E.K., E.V.Q., A.V.: analysis of TESS light curve. K.S., K.C., N.N., E.P., J.P.: follow-up ground-based observations. I.J.M.C., D.A.B., P.L., E.N.: Spitzer light curve. D.F., B.T., C. Hellier: inspection of ground-based light curves. D.W.L.: TRES. G.A.-E.: HARPS. G.R., R.V., S.S., J.N.W., J.M.J.: TESS mission architects. S.R., A.K., S.D., J.T.: TESS mission. F.A., M.C., M.K., A.R., V.R., J.W.: disk physics. D.A.A., J.E.S., A.Y.: flare analysis. C. Beichman, M.B., C. Brinkworth, D.R.C., S.R.K., B.M., S.M.M., K.v.B.: CSHELL/iSHELL instrumentation. B.P.B., C.J.B., J.T.C., J. Horner, J.K., J.O., C.G.T., R.A.W., D.J.W., H.Z.: MINERVA-Australis. A.C., C.D., E.F., C.G., F.G., R.H., T.H., J.H., C.K., N.L., M.M., T.M., A.N., J.T., B.W., D.W., P.Z.: CSHELL/iSHELL observers. E.J.G.: stellar parameters. A.W.H.: Keck HIRES. The authors declare no competing interests.
Errata:In Fig. 3 of this Article, the subscript ‘Sun’ symbols on both axis labels (R☉ and M☉) should have been subscript ‘Earth’ symbols (R⊕ and M⊕), as appears correctly in the legend. This error has been corrected online.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
George Mason UniversityUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilLE160100001
Australian Research CouncilDP180100972
University of Southern QueenslandUNSPECIFIED
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Nanjing UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of LouisvilleUNSPECIFIED
University of California, RiversideUNSPECIFIED
University of FloridaUNSPECIFIED
University of Texas at AustinUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
National Natural Science Foundation of China11673011
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51372.001-A
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Issue or Number:7813
PubMed Central ID:PMC7323865
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200626-144356489
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Plavchan, P., Barclay, T., Gagné, J. et al. A planet within the debris disk around the pre-main-sequence star AU Microscopii. Nature 582, 497–500 (2020).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104097
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jun 2020 22:25
Last Modified:10 Feb 2022 00:18

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