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THEMIS: A Parameter Estimation Framework for the Event Horizon Telescope

Broderick, Avery E. and Gold, Roman and Karami, Mansour and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Tiede, Paul and Pu, Hung-Yi and Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gómez, José L. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra and Johnson, Michael D. and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lee, Sang-Sung and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lico, Rocco and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Park, Jongho and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Prather, Ben and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Rottmann, Helge and Ruszczyk, Chet and Ryan, Benjamin R. and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Tazaki, Fumie and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Traianou, Efthalia and Trippe, Sascha and Tsuda, Shuichiro and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guangyao and Zhao, Shan-Shan and Zhu, Ziyan (2020) THEMIS: A Parameter Estimation Framework for the Event Horizon Telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 897 (2). Art. No. 139. ISSN 1538-4357. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200710-152527760

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Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) provides the unprecedented ability to directly resolve the structure and dynamics of black hole emission regions on scales smaller than their horizons. This has the potential to critically probe the mechanisms by which black holes accrete and launch outflows, and the structure of supermassive black hole spacetimes. However, accessing this information is a formidable analysis challenge for two reasons. First, the EHT natively produces a variety of data types that encode information about the image structure in nontrivial ways; these are subject to a variety of systematic effects associated with very long baseline interferometry and are supplemented by a wide variety of auxiliary data on the primary EHT targets from decades of other observations. Second, models of the emission regions and their interaction with the black hole are complex, highly uncertain, and computationally expensive to construct. As a result, the scientific utilization of EHT observations requires a flexible, extensible, and powerful analysis framework. We present such a framework, Themis, which defines a set of interfaces between models, data, and sampling algorithms that facilitates future development. We describe the design and currently existing components of Themis, how Themis has been validated thus far, and present additional analyses made possible by Themis that illustrate its capabilities. Importantly, we demonstrate that Themis is able to reproduce prior EHT analyses, extend these, and do so in a computationally efficient manner that can efficiently exploit modern high-performance computing facilities. Themis has already been used extensively in the scientific analysis and interpretation of the first EHT observations of M87.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab91a4DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Gold, Roman0000-0003-2492-1966
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Preciado-López, Jorge A.0000-0002-4146-0113
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
Pu, Hung-Yi0000-0001-9270-8812
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Baczko, Anne-Kathrin0000-0003-3090-3975
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Carlstrom, John E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chael, Andrew0000-0003-2966-6220
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Chen, Ming-Tang0000-0001-6573-3318
Chen, Yongjun0000-0001-5650-6770
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Cui, Yuzhu0000-0001-6311-4345
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia0000-0002-9945-682X
Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Doeleman, Sheperd S.0000-0002-9031-0904
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fromm, Christian M.0000-0002-1827-1656
Galison, Peter0000-0002-6429-3872
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Georgiev, Boris0000-0002-3586-6424
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Ho, Paul0000-0002-3412-4306
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Lei0000-0002-1923-227X
Inoue, Makoto0000-0001-5037-3989
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-8685-6544
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra0000-0002-2662-3754
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Li, Yan-Rong0000-0001-5841-9179
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Lo, Wen-Ping0000-0003-1869-2503
Lobanov, Andrei P.0000-0003-1622-1484
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
Lonsdale, Colin0000-0003-4062-4654
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
MacDonald, Nicholas R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mao, Jirong0000-0002-7077-7195
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Matthews, Lynn D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Menten, Karl M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Moscibrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Narayanan, Gopal0000-0002-4723-6569
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Ni, Chunchong0000-0003-1361-5699
Okino, Hiroki0000-0003-3779-2016
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Oyama, Tomoaki0000-0003-4046-2923
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Raymond, Alexander W.0000-0002-5779-4767
Rezzolla, Luciano0000-0002-1330-7103
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Rogers, Alan0000-0003-1941-7458
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Rose, Mel0000-0002-2016-8746
Rottmann, Helge0000-0003-1799-8228
Ruszczyk, Chet0000-0001-7278-9707
Ryan, Benjamin R.0000-0001-8939-4461
Rygl, Kazi L. J.0000-0003-4146-9043
Sánchez, Salvador0000-0002-8042-5951
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Schuster, Karl-Friedrich0000-0003-2890-9454
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Zhiqiang0000-0003-3540-8746
Small, Des0000-0003-3723-5404
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, Jason0000-0003-1938-0720
Tazaki, Fumie0000-0003-0236-0600
Tilanus, Remo P. J.0000-0002-6514-553X
Titus, Michael0000-0002-3423-4505
Toma, Kenji0000-0002-7114-6010
Torne, Pablo0000-0001-8700-6058
Traianou, Efthalia0000-0002-1209-6500
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
van Bemmel, Ilse0000-0001-5473-2950
van Langevelde, Huib Jan0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Wardle, John0000-0002-8960-2942
Weintroub, Jonathan0000-0002-4603-5204
Wex, Norbert0000-0003-4058-2837
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Wu, Qingwen0000-0003-4773-4987
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Young, André0000-0003-0000-2682
Young, Ken0000-0002-3666-4920
Younsi, Ziri0000-0001-9283-1191
Yuan, Feng0000-0003-3564-6437
Yuan, Ye-Fei0000-0002-7330-4756
Zensus, J. Anton0000-0001-7470-3321
Zhao, Guangyao0000-0002-4417-1659
Zhao, Shan-Shan0000-0002-9774-3606
Zhu, Ziyan0000-0003-4463-5828
Additional Information:© 2020 The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2019 September 12; revised 2020 April 29; accepted 2020 May 7; published 2020 July 10. This work was made possible by the facilities of the Shared Hierarchical Academic Research Computing Network (SHARCNET: www.sharcnet.ca) and Compute/Calcul Canada (www.computecanada.ca). Computations were made on the supercomputer Mammouth Parallèle 2 from University of Sherbrooke, managed by Calcul Québec and Compute Canada. The operation of this supercomputer is funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the ministère de l'Économie, de la science et de l'innovation du Québec (MESI), and the Fonds de recherche du Québec—Nature et technologies (FRQ-NT). This work was supported in part by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade. A.E.B. thanks the Delaney Family for their generous financial support via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute. A.E.B., P.T., and M.K. receive additional financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada through a Discovery Grant. R.G. receives additional support from the ERC synergy grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant No. 610058). We thank Jason Dexter for helpful comments and suggestions. We further thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496); the Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project, supported by the European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action under grant agreement 731016; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through grants from the John Templeton Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT, Chile, via PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt 1171506, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007); Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects 104497, 275201, 279006, 281692); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico–Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA–UNAM, project IN112417); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, and 107-2119-M-110-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC17K0649); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1715061, AST-1615796, AST-1716327, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China; the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017–00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Russian Science Foundation (grant 17-12-01029); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001)); the Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Università e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA (CUP C52I13000140001); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Ministère de l'Économie, de la science et de l'innovation du Québec (MESI)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and TradeUNSPECIFIED
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)731016
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)PIA ACT172033
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171506
BASAL-CATAAFB-170002
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)31140007
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)281692
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Jansky FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SYS008
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
NASA80NSSC17K0649
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSFAST-0096454
NSFAST-0352953
NSFAST-0521233
NSFAST-0705062
NSFAST-0905844
NSFAST-0922984
NSFAST-1126433
NSFAST-1140030
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
NSFAST-1207704
NSFAST-1207730
NSFAST-1207752
NSFMRI-1228509
NSFOPP-1248097
NSFAST-1310896
NSFAST-1337663
NSFAST-1440254
NSFAST-1555365
NSFAST-1715061
NSFAST-1615796
NSFAST-1716327
NSFOISE-1743747
NSFAST-1816420
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Youth Thousand Talents Program of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)SPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01029
Severo OchoaPGC2018-098915-B-C21
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)CUP C52I13000140001
European Research Council (ERC)730562 RadioNet
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
NASATM6-17006X
NSFACI-1548562
NSFDBI-0735191
NSFDBI-1265383
NSFDBI-1743442
NSFTG-AST170024
NSFTG-AST080026N
NSFAST-170028
Subject Keywords:Astrophysical black holes ; Galactic center ; Astronomy data analysis ; Very long baseline interferometry ; Submillimeter astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Astrophysical black holes (98); Galactic center (565); Astronomy data analysis (1858); Very long baseline interferometry (1769); Submillimeter astronomy (1647)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200710-152527760
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200710-152527760
Official Citation:Avery E. Broderick et al 2020 ApJ 897 139
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104340
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Jul 2020 23:09
Last Modified:30 Sep 2020 17:44

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