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An evolutionary study of volatile chemistry in protoplanetary disks

Bergner, Jennifer B. and Öberg, Karin I. and Bergin, Edwin A. and Andrews, Sean M. and Blake, Geoffrey A. and Carpenter, John M. and Cleeves, L. Ilsedore and Guzmán, Viviana V. and Huang, Jane and Jorgensen, Jes K. and Qi, Chunhua and Schwarz, Kamber R. and Williams, Jonathan P. and Wilner, David J. (2020) An evolutionary study of volatile chemistry in protoplanetary disks. Astrophysical Journal, 898 (2). Art. No. 97. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9e71.

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The volatile composition of a planet is determined by the inventory of gas and ice in the parent disk. The volatile chemistry in the disk is expected to evolve over time, though this evolution is poorly constrained observationally. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of C¹⁸O, C₂H, and the isotopologues H¹³CN, HC¹⁵N, and DCN toward five Class 0/I disk candidates. Combined with a sample of 14 Class II disks presented in Bergner et al., this data set offers a view of volatile chemical evolution over the disk lifetime. Our estimates of C¹⁸O abundances are consistent with a rapid depletion of CO in the first ~0.5–1 Myr of the disk lifetime. We do not see evidence that C₂H and HCN formation are enhanced by CO depletion, possibly because the gas is already quite under-abundant in CO. Further CO depletion may actually hinder their production by limiting the gas-phase carbon supply. The embedded sources show several chemical differences compared to the Class II stage, which seem to arise from shielding of radiation by the envelope (impacting C₂H formation and HC¹⁵N fractionation) and sublimation of ices from infalling material (impacting HCN and C¹⁸O abundances). Such chemical differences between Class 0/I and Class II sources may affect the volatile composition of planet-forming material at different stages in the disk lifetime.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bergner, Jennifer B.0000-0002-8716-0482
Öberg, Karin I.0000-0001-8798-1347
Bergin, Edwin A.0000-0003-4179-6394
Andrews, Sean M.0000-0003-2253-2270
Blake, Geoffrey A.0000-0003-0787-1610
Carpenter, John M.0000-0003-2251-0602
Cleeves, L. Ilsedore0000-0003-2076-8001
Guzmán, Viviana V.0000-0003-4784-3040
Huang, Jane0000-0001-6947-6072
Jorgensen, Jes K.0000-0001-9133-8047
Qi, Chunhua0000-0001-8642-1786
Schwarz, Kamber R.0000-0002-6429-9457
Williams, Jonathan P.0000-0001-5058-695X
Wilner, David J.0000-0003-1526-7587
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 May 13; revised 2020 June 17; accepted 2020 June 17; published 2020 July 28. We are grateful to the anonymous referee for feedback on this manuscript. This paper makes use of ALMA data, project codes 2015.1.00964.S and 2016.1.00627.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. J.B.B. acknowledges support from NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant number HST-HF2-51429.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. K.I.Ö acknowledges the support of the Simons Foundation through a Simons Collaboration on the Origins of Life (SCOL) PI grant (No. 321183). E.A.B. and K.I.Ö acknowledge support from NSF grant number 1907653. L.I.C. acknowledges support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation and from the Virginia Space Grant Consortium. J.H. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant number DGE-1144152. J.K.J acknowledges support from the H2020 European Research Council (ERC) (grant agreement number 646908) through ERC Consolidator Grant "S4F." Software: NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51429.001-A
Simons Foundation321183
David and Lucille Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Virginia Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144152
European Research Council (ERC)646908
Subject Keywords:Astrochemistry ; Protoplanetary disks ; Protostars ; Interstellar molecules
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Astrochemistry (75); Protoplanetary disks (1300); Protostars (1302); Interstellar molecules (849)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200714-121856747
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jennifer B. Bergner et al 2020 ApJ 898 97
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104381
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:14 Jul 2020 19:42
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:31

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