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Characterization of systematic error in Advanced LIGO calibration

Sun, Ling and Goetz, Evan and Kissel, Jeffrey S. and Betzwieser, Joseph and Karki, Sudarshan and Viets, Aaron and Wade, Madeline and Bhattacharjee, Dripta and Bossilkov, Vladimir and Covas, Pep B. and Datrier, Laurence E. H. and Gray, Rachel and Kandhasamy, Shivaraj and Lecoeuche, Yannick K. and Mendell, Gregory and Mistry, Timesh and Payne, Ethan and Savage, Richard L. and Weinstein, Alan J. and Aston, Stuart and Buikema, Aaron and Cahillane, Craig and Driggers, Jenne C. and Dwyer, Sheila E. and Kumar, Rahul and Urban, Alexander (2020) Characterization of systematic error in Advanced LIGO calibration. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 37 (22). Art. No. 225008. ISSN 0264-9381.

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The raw outputs of the detectors within the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory need to be calibrated in order to produce the estimate of the dimensionless strain used for astrophysical analyses. The two detectors have been upgraded since the second observing run and finished the year-long third observing run. Understanding, accounting, and/or compensating for the complex-valued response of each part of the upgraded detectors improves the overall accuracy of the estimated detector response to gravitational waves. We describe improved understanding and methods used to quantify the response of each detector, with a dedicated effort to define all places where systematic error plays a role. We use the detectors as they stand in the first half (six months) of the third observing run to demonstrate how each identified systematic error impacts the estimated strain and constrain the statistical uncertainty therein. For this time period, we estimate the upper limit on systematic error and associated uncertainty to be <7% in magnitude and <4 deg in phase (68% confidence interval) in the most sensitive frequency band 20–2000 Hz. The systematic error alone is estimated at levels of <2% in magnitude and <2 deg in phase.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Sun, Ling0000-0001-7959-892X
Goetz, Evan0000-0003-2666-721X
Kissel, Jeffrey S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Weinstein, Alan J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Buikema, Aaron0000-0001-9409-5757
Additional Information:© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd. Received 12 May 2020; Revised 17 August 2020; Accepted 21 August 2020; Published 19 October 2020. The authors gratefully acknowledge the operators, commissioners, and LSC fellows at Hanford and Livingston for their help in setting up the detector configurations and taking measurements needed for this work. The authors also gratefully acknowledge Jonathan Gair, Keita Kawabe and Loïc Rolland for the review and comments. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), and operates under cooperative agreement PHY–1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under award PHY–0823459. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States NSF for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council (ARC). LS, DB, VB, PBC, LEHD, RG, TM, EP, AB and CC acknowledge the LSC Fellows program for supporting their research at LIGO sites. EG acknowledges the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. DB and SK are supported by NSF award PHY–1921006. AV is supported by NSF award PHY–1841480. MW is supported by NSF awards PHY–1607178 and PHY–1847350. VB and EP acknowledge the support of the ARC Center of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), Grant Number CE170100004. PBC acknowledges the support of the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación and Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades grants FPA2016-76821-P the Vicepresidencia i Conselleria d'Innovació, Recerca i Turisme del Govern de les Illes Balears (Grant FPI-CAIB FPI/2134/2018), the Fons Social Europeu 2014–2020 de les Illes Balears, the European Union FEDER funds, and the EU COST actions CA16104, CA16214, CA17137 and CA18108. The authors would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. This paper carries LIGO Document Number LIGO–P1900245.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
LIGO Scientific CollaborationUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilCE170100004
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2016-76821-P
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i TurismeFPI-CAIB FPI/2134/2018
Fons Social Europeu 2014-2020 de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
European Cooperation in Science and TechnologyCA16104
European Cooperation in Science and TechnologyCA16214
European Cooperation in Science and TechnologyCA17137
European Cooperation in Science and TechnologyCA18108
Subject Keywords:gravitational waves, LIGO calibration, systematic error, interferometry, general relativity, data analysis, astrophysics
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP1900245
Issue or Number:22
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200720-083013202
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ling Sun et al 2020 Class. Quantum Grav. 37 225008
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104441
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Jul 2020 15:57
Last Modified:21 Oct 2020 17:13

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