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Brain of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): Neuroanatomy from magnetic resonance images

Hakeem, Atiya Y. and Hof, Patrick R. and Sherwood, Chet C. and Switzer, Robert C., III and Rasmussen, L. E. L. and Allman, John M. (2005) Brain of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): Neuroanatomy from magnetic resonance images. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, 287A (1). pp. 1117-1127. ISSN 1552-4884. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200720-124523833

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Abstract

We acquired magnetic resonance images of the brain of an adult African elephant, Loxodonta africana, in the axial and parasagittal planes and produced anatomically labeled images. We quantified the volume of the whole brain (3,886.7 cm3) and of the neocortical and cerebellar gray and white matter. The white matter‐to‐gray matter ratio in the elephant neocortex and cerebellum is in keeping with that expected for a brain of this size. The ratio of neocortical gray matter volume to corpus callosum cross‐sectional area is similar in the elephant and human brains (108 and 93.7, respectively), emphasizing the difference between terrestrial mammals and cetaceans, which have a very small corpus callosum relative to the volume of neocortical gray matter (ratio of 181–287 in our sample). Finally, the elephant has an unusually large and convoluted hippocampus compared to primates and especially to cetaceans. This may be related to the extremely long social and chemical memory of elephants.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.a.20255DOIArticle
Additional Information:© 2005 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. Issue Online: 25 October 2005. Version of Record online: 07 October 2005. Manuscript accepted: 17 August 2005. Manuscript received: 16 August 2005. The authors thank Dr. J. Michael Tyszka for his invaluable assistance in obtaining the elephant brain MRI. They also thank Karli Watson for the human MRI data and Dr. Lori Marino for the dolphin MRI data used in Figure 11. Grant sponsor: the Packard Foundation; Grant sponsor: the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:African elephant; brain; magnetic resonance imaging; hypocampus; corpus callosum
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200720-124523833
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200720-124523833
Official Citation:Hakeem, A.Y., Hof, P.R., Sherwood, C.C., Switzer, R.C., III, Rasmussen, L. and Allman, J.M. (2005), Brain of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana ): Neuroanatomy from magnetic resonance images. Anat. Rec., 287A: 1117-1127. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20255
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104453
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Rebecca Minjarez
Deposited On:22 Jul 2020 16:59
Last Modified:22 Jul 2020 16:59

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