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Observing the earliest moments of supernovae using strong gravitational lenses

Foxley-Marrable, Max and Collett, Thomas E. and Frohmaier, Chris and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Kasen, Daniel and Swann, Elizabeth and Bacon, David (2020) Observing the earliest moments of supernovae using strong gravitational lenses. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 495 (4). pp. 4622-4637. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We determine the viability of exploiting lensing time delays to observe strongly gravitationally lensed supernovae (gLSNe) from first light. Assuming a plausible discovery strategy, the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) and the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) will discover ∼110 and ∼1 systems per year before the supernova (SN) explosion in the final image, respectively. Systems will be identified 11.7^(+29.8)_(−9.3) d before the final explosion. We then explore the possibility of performing early-time observations for Type IIP and Type Ia SNe in LSST-discovered systems. Using a simulated Type IIP explosion, we predict that the shock breakout in one trailing image per year will peak at ≲24.1 mag (≲23.3) in the B-band (F218W), however evolving over a time-scale of ∼30 min. Using an analytic model of Type Ia companion interaction, we find that in the B-band we should observe at least one shock cooling emission event per year that peaks at ≲26.3 mag (≲29.6) assuming all Type Ia gLSNe have a 1 M_⊙ red giant (main sequence) companion. We perform Bayesian analysis to investigate how well deep observations with 1 h exposures on the European Extremely Large Telescope would discriminate between Type Ia progenitor populations. We find that if all Type Ia SNe evolved from the double-degenerate channel, then observations of the lack of early blue flux in 10 (50) trailing images would rule out more than 27 per cent (19 per cent) of the population having 1 M_⊙ main sequence companions at 95 per cent confidence.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Foxley-Marrable, Max0000-0002-2169-3032
Collett, Thomas E.0000-0001-5564-3140
Frohmaier, Chris0000-0001-9553-4723
Goldstein, Daniel A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Kasen, Daniel0000-0002-5981-1022
Swann, Elizabeth0000-0001-6117-1100
Bacon, David0000-0002-2562-8537
Additional Information:© 2020 The Author(s.) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2020 May 3. Received 2020 April 25; in original form 2020 March 13. Published: 11 May 2020. We thank Maria Vincenzi and the anonymous referee for constructive and meaningful discussions that were essential in the making of this paper. MF is supported by the University of Portsmouth, through a University Studentship. TC is supported by the Royal Astronomical Society through a Royal Astronomical Society Research Fellowship. Collaboration for this work was funded by a Royal Society International Exchange Grant (IE/170307).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of PortsmouthUNSPECIFIED
Royal Astronomical SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyIE/170307
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: strong, supernovae: general
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200723-122439521
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Official Citation:Max Foxley-Marrable, Thomas E Collett, Chris Frohmaier, Daniel A Goldstein, Daniel Kasen, Elizabeth Swann, David Bacon, Observing the earliest moments of supernovae using strong gravitational lenses, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 495, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages 4622–4637,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104535
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Jul 2020 14:48
Last Modified:24 Jul 2020 14:48

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