A Caltech Library Service

Nonreciprocity in acoustic and elastic materials

Nassar, Hussein and Yousefzadeh, Behrooz and Fleury, Romain and Ruzzene, Massimo and Alù, Andrea and Daraio, Chiara and Norris, Andrew N. and Huang, Guoliang and Haberman, Michael R. (2020) Nonreciprocity in acoustic and elastic materials. Nature Reviews Materials, 5 (9). pp. 667-685. ISSN 2058-8437.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The law of reciprocity in acoustics and elastodynamics codifies a relation of symmetry between action and reaction in fluids and solids. In its simplest form, it states that the frequency-response functions between any two material points remain the same after swapping source and receiver, regardless of the presence of inhomogeneities and losses. As such, reciprocity has enabled numerous applications that make use of acoustic and elastic wave propagation. A recent change in paradigm has prompted us to see reciprocity under a new light: as an obstruction to the realization of wave-bearing media in which the source and receiver are not interchangeable. Such materials may enable the creation of devices such as acoustic one-way mirrors, isolators and topological insulators. Here, we review how reciprocity breaks down in materials with momentum bias, structured space-dependent and time-dependent constitutive properties, and constitutive nonlinearity, and report on recent advances in the modelling and fabrication of these materials, as well as on experiments demonstrating nonreciprocal acoustic and elastic wave propagation therein. The success of these efforts holds promise to enable robust, unidirectional acoustic and elastic wave-steering capabilities that exceed what is currently possible in conventional materials, metamaterials or phononic crystals.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Nassar, Hussein0000-0001-7235-4498
Yousefzadeh, Behrooz0000-0002-6973-717X
Fleury, Romain0000-0002-9486-6854
Ruzzene, Massimo0000-0002-1502-2160
Alù, Andrea0000-0002-4297-5274
Daraio, Chiara0000-0001-5296-4440
Norris, Andrew N.0000-0001-7577-3698
Huang, Guoliang0000-0002-6238-6127
Haberman, Michael R.0000-0002-7159-9773
Additional Information:© 2020 Springer Nature Limited. Accepted 01 May 2020. Published 06 July 2020. A.N.N., G.H. and M.R.H. acknowledge support from NSF EFRI award no. 1641078. M.R.H. acknowledges support from ONR YIP award no. N00014-18-1-2335. C.D. acknowledges support from NSF EFRI award no. 1741565. A.A. acknowledges support from NSF EFRI award no. 1641069, the DARPA Nascent program and AFOSR MURI award no. FA9550-18-1-0379. R.F. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation under SNSF grant no. 172487 and the SNSF Eccellenza award no. 181232. Author Contributions: H.N., B.Y., M.R. and R.F. provided initial drafts of portions of the manuscript. All authors subsequently integrated, reviewed and revised the full manuscript. M.R.H. and G.H. coordinated manuscript writing and organization. The authors declare no competing interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-18-1-2335
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)UNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-18-1-0379
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)172487
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)181232
Subject Keywords:Acoustics; Metamaterials
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200723-122440892
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Nassar, H., Yousefzadeh, B., Fleury, R. et al. Nonreciprocity in acoustic and elastic materials. Nat Rev Mater 5, 667–685 (2020).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104540
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:23 Jul 2020 19:51
Last Modified:09 Sep 2020 17:24

Repository Staff Only: item control page