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Equation-of-state constraints and the QCD phase transition in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy

Bauswein, Andreas and Bastian, Niels-Uwe Friedrich and Blaschke, David and Chatziioannou, Katerina and Clark, James Alexander and Fischer, Tobias and Janka, Hans-Thomas and Just, Oliver and Oertel, Micaela and Stergioulas, Nikolaos (2019) Equation-of-state constraints and the QCD phase transition in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. In: Xiamen-CUSTIPEN Workshop on the Equation of State of Dense Neutron-Rich Matter in the Era of Gravitational Wave Astronomy. AIP Conference Proceedings. No.2127. AIP Publishing , Melville, NY, Art. No. 020013. ISBN 9780735418691. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200728-123808771

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Abstract

We describe a multi-messenger interpretation of GW170817, which yields a robust lower limit on NS radii. This excludes NSs with radii smaller than about 10.7 km and thus rules out very soft nuclear matter. We stress the potential of this type of constraints when future detections become available. For instance, a very similar argumentation may yield an upper bound on the maximum mass of nonrotating NSs. We also discuss simulations of NS mergers, which undergo a first-order phase transition to quark matter. We point out a different dynamical behavior. Considering the gravitational-wave signal, we identify an unambiguous signature of the QCD phase transition in NS mergers. We show that the occurrence of quark matter through a strong first-order phase transition during merging leads to a characteristic shift of the dominant postmerger frequency. The frequency shift is indicative for a phase transition if it is compared to the postmerger frequency which is expected for purely hadronic EoS models. A very strong deviation of several 100 Hz is observed for hybrid EoSs in an otherwise tight relation between the tidal deformability and the postmerger frequency. In future events the tidal deformability will be inferred with sufficient precision from the premerger phase, while the dominant postmerger frequency can be obtained when current detectors reach a higher sensitivity in the high-frequency range within the next years. Finally, we address the potential impact of a first-order phase transition on the electromagnetic counter-part of NS mergers. Our simulations suggest that there would be no significant qualitative differences between a system undergoing a phase transition to quark matter and purely hadronic mergers. The quantitative differences are within the spread which is found between different hadronic EoS models. This implies on the one hand that GW170817 is compatible with a possible transition to quark matter. On the other hand these considerations show that it may not be easy to identify quantitative differences between purely hadronic mergers and events in which quark matter occurs considering solely their electromagnetic counterpart or their nucleosynthesis products.


Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5117803DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.01306arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Chatziioannou, Katerina0000-0002-5833-413X
Additional Information:© 2019 Author(s). Published Online: 17 July 2019. AB acknowledges support by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 759253 and the German Research Foundation (DFG) via the Collaborative Research Center SFB 881 “The Milky Way System”. NUFB and TF acknowledge support from the Polish National Science Center (NCN) under grant no. UMO-2016/23/B/ST2/00720. DB acknowledges support through the Russian Science Foundation under project No. 17-12-01427 and the MEPhI Academic Excellence Project under contract No. 02.a03.21.0005. We acknowledge stimulating discussions during the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force: The physics of NS mergers at GSI/FAIR and the support of networking activities by the COST Actions CA15213 “THOR”, CA16117 “ChETEC”, CA16214 “PHAROS” and CA16104G “GWVerse”. OJ is supported by the Special Postdoctoral Researchers (SPDR) program and the iTHEMS cluster at RIKEN. NS is supported by the ARIS facility of GRNET in Athens (GWAVES and GRAVASYM allocations). HTJ is grateful for support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through Collaborative Research Center SFB 1258 “Neutrinos and Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics” (NDM) and the Excellence Cluster Universe (EXC 153; http://www.universecluster.de/). The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. JC acknowledges support from NSF award PHY-1505524.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)759253
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB 881
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/23/B/ST2/00720
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01427
National Research Nuclear University02.a03.21.0005
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)CA15213
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)CA16117
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)CA16214
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)CA16104G
RIKENUNSPECIFIED
National Infrastructures for Research and Technology (GRNET)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB 1258
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)EXC 153
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFPHY-1505524
Series Name:AIP Conference Proceedings
Issue or Number:2127
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200728-123808771
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200728-123808771
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:104608
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:28 Jul 2020 19:54
Last Modified:31 Jul 2020 21:22

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