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Kilonova Luminosity Function Constraints based on Zwicky Transient Facility Searches for 13 Neutron Star Mergers

Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Anand, Shreya and Ahumada, Tomás and Stein, Robert and Sagues Carracedo, Ana and Andreoni, Igor and Coughlin, Michael W. and Singer, Leo P. and Kool, Erik C. and De, Kishalay and Kumar, Harsh and Almualla, Mouza and Yao, Yuhan and Bulla, Mattia and Dobie, Dougal and Reusch, Simeon and Perley, Daniel A. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Bhalerao, Varun and Kaplan, David L. and Sollerman, Jesper and Goobar, Ariel and Copperwheat, Christopher M. and Bellm, Eric C. and Anupama, G. C. and Corsi, Alessandra and Nissanke, Samaya and Agudo, Ivan and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Barway, Sudhanshu and Belicki, Justin and Bloom, Joshua S. and Bolin, Bryce and Buckley, David A. H. and Burdge, Kevin B. and Burruss, Rick and Caballero-Garcıa, Maria D. and Cannella, Chris and Castro-Tirado, Alberto J. and Cook, David O. and Cooke, Jeff and Cunningham, Virginia and Dahiwale, Aishwarya and Deshmukh, Kunal P. and Dichiara, Simone and Duev, Dmitry A. and Dutta, Anirban and Feeney, Michael and Franckowiak, Anna and Frederick, Sara and Fremling, Christoffer and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Gatkine, Pradip and Ghosh, Shaon and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Golkhou, V. Zach and Graham, Matthew J. and Graham, Melissa L. and Hankins, Matthew J. and Helou, George and Hu, Youdong and Ip, Wing-Huen and Jaodand, Amruta and Karambelkar, Viraj and Kong, Albert K. H. and Kowalski, Marek and Khandagale, Maitreya and Kulkarni, S. R. and Kumar, Brajesh and Laher, Russ R. and Li, K. L. and Mahabal, Ashish and Masci, Frank J. and Miller, Adam A. and Mogotsi, Moses and Mohite, Siddharth and Mooley, Kunal and Mróz, Przemek and Newman, Jeffrey A. and Ngeow, Chow-Choong and Oates, Samantha R. and Patil, Atharva Sunil and Pandey, Shashi B. and Pavana, M. and Pian, Elena and Riddle, Reed and Sanchez-Ramırez, Ruben and Sharma, Yashvi and Singh, Avinash and Smith, Roger and Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Taggart, Kirsty and Tan, Hanjie and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Troja, Eleonora and Valeev, Azamat F. and Walters, Richard and Waratkar, Gaurav and Webb, Sara and Yu, Po-Chieh and Zhang, Bin-Bin and Zhou, Rongpu and Zolkower, Jeffry (2020) Kilonova Luminosity Function Constraints based on Zwicky Transient Facility Searches for 13 Neutron Star Mergers. . (Unpublished)

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We present a systematic search for optical counterparts to 13 gravitational wave (GW) triggers involving at least one neutron star during LIGO/Virgo's third observing run (O3). We searched binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star black hole (NSBH) merger localizations with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and undertook follow-up with the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) collaboration. The GW triggers had a median localization area of 4480 deg², median distance of 267Mpc and false alarm rates ranging from 1.5 yr⁻¹ to 10⁻²⁵ yr⁻¹. The ZTF coverage had a median enclosed probability of 39%, median depth of 20.8 mag, and median time lag between merger and the start of observations of 1.5 hr. The O3 follow-up by the GROWTH team comprised 340 UltraViolet/Optical/InfraRed (UVOIR) photometric points, 64 OIR spectra, and 3 radio images. We find no promising kilonova (radioactivity-powered counterpart) and we show how to convert the upper limits to constrain the underlying kilonova luminosity function. Initially, we assume that all GW triggers are bonafide astrophysical events regardless of false alarm rate and that kilonovae accompanying BNS and NSBH mergers are drawn from a common population, and later, we relax these assumptions. Assuming that all kilonovae are at least as luminous as the discovery magnitude of GW170817 (-16.1 mag), we calculate that our joint probability of detecting zero kilonovae is only 4.2%. If we assume that all kilonovae are brighter than -16.6 mag (extrapolated peak magnitude of GW170817) and fade at a rate of 1 mag day⁻¹ (similar to GW170817), the joint probability of zero detections is 7%. If we separate the NSBH and BNS populations, the joint probability of zero detections, assuming all kilonovae are brighter than -16.6 mag, is 9.7% for NSBH and 7.9% for BNS mergers. Moreover, no more than <57% (<89%) of putative kilonovae could be brighter than -16.6 mag assuming at evolution (fading by 1 mag day⁻¹), at the 90% confidence level. If we further take into account the online terrestrial probability for each GW trigger, we find that no more than <68% of putative kilonovae could be brighter than -16.6 mag. Comparing to model grids, we find that some kilonovae must have M_(ej) < 0.03M⊙ or X_(lan) > 10⁻⁴ or ø > 30° to be consistent with our limits. We look forward to searches in the fourth GW observing run; even 17 neutron star mergers with only 50% coverage to a depth of -16 mag would constrain the maximum fraction of bright kilonovae to <25%.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Anand, Shreya0000-0003-3768-7515
Ahumada, Tomás0000-0002-2184-6430
Stein, Robert0000-0003-2434-0387
Andreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Coughlin, Michael W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Singer, Leo P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Kool, Erik C.0000-0002-7252-3877
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Almualla, Mouza0000-0002-4694-7123
Yao, Yuhan0000-0001-6747-8509
Bulla, Mattia0000-0002-8255-5127
Dobie, Dougal0000-0003-0699-7019
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Bhalerao, Varun0000-0002-6112-7609
Kaplan, David L.0000-0001-6295-2881
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Goobar, Ariel0000-0002-4163-4996
Copperwheat, Christopher M.0000-0001-7983-8698
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Corsi, Alessandra0000-0001-8104-3536
Nissanke, Samaya0000-0001-6573-7773
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7241-1648
Bolin, Bryce0000-0002-4950-6323
Buckley, David A. H.0000-0002-7004-9956
Burdge, Kevin B.0000-0002-7226-836X
Caballero-Garcıa, Maria D.0000-0001-7920-4564
Cannella, Chris0000-0003-2667-7290
Cook, David O.0000-0002-6877-7655
Cooke, Jeff0000-0001-5703-2108
Cunningham, Virginia0000-0003-2292-0441
Deshmukh, Kunal P.0000-0001-5253-3480
Dichiara, Simone0000-0001-6849-1270
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Franckowiak, Anna0000-0002-5605-2219
Frederick, Sara0000-0001-9676-730X
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Gatkine, Pradip0000-0002-1955-2230
Ghosh, Shaon0000-0001-9901-6253
Goldstein, Daniel A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Golkhou, V. Zach0000-0001-8205-2506
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Graham, Melissa L.0000-0002-9154-3136
Hankins, Matthew J.0000-0001-9315-8437
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Hu, Youdong0000-0002-7400-4608
Ip, Wing-Huen0000-0002-3140-5014
Jaodand, Amruta0000-0002-3850-6651
Kong, Albert K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Li, K. L.0000-0001-8229-2024
Mahabal, Ashish0000-0003-2242-0244
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Miller, Adam A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Mooley, Kunal0000-0002-2557-5180
Mróz, Przemek0000-0001-7016-1692
Newman, Jeffrey A.0000-0001-8684-2222
Ngeow, Chow-Choong0000-0001-8771-7554
Pian, Elena0000-0001-8646-4858
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Soumagnac, Maayane T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Troja, Eleonora0000-0002-1869-7817
Walters, Richard0000-0002-1835-6078
Webb, Sara0000-0003-2601-1472
Yu, Po-Chieh0000-0001-8894-0854
Additional Information:This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK) and University of Sydney (Australia). Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant #12540303 (PI: Graham). SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1106171. GROWTH India telescope is a 70-cm telescope with a 0.7 degree field of view, set up by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay with support from the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) and the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India ( It is located at the Indian Astronomical Observatory (Hanle), operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA). GROWTH-India project is supported by SERB and administered by IUSSTF, under grant number IUSSTF/PIRE Program/GROWTH/2015-16. This research has made use of the VizieR catalogue access tool, CDS, Strasbourg, France (DOI : 10.26093/cds/vizier). The original description of the VizieR service was published in A&AS 143, 23. These results made use of the Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT) at Lowell Observatory. Lowell is a private, non-profit institution dedicated to astrophysical research and public appreciation of astronomy and operates the LDT in partnership with Boston University, the University of Maryland, the University of Toledo, Northern Arizona University and Yale University. The Large Monolithic Imager was built by Lowell Observatory using funds provided by the National Science Foundation (AST-1005313). The upgrade of the DeVeny optical spectrograph has been funded by a generous grant from John and Ginger Giovale and by a grant from the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation. The KPED team thanks the National Science Foundation and the National Optical Astronomical Observatory for making the Kitt Peak 2.1-m telescope available. We thank the observatory staff at Kitt Peak for their efforts to assist Robo-AO KP operations. The KPED team thanks the National Science Foundation, the National Optical Astronomical Observatory, the Caltech Space Innovation Council and the Murty family for support in the building and operation of KPED. In addition, they thank the CHIMERA project for use of the Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD). The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Some spectroscopic observations were obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The Photometric Redshifts for the Legacy Surveys (PRLS) catalog used in this paper was produced thanks to funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics via grant DE-SC0007914. This publication has made use of data collected at Lulin Observatory, partly supported by MoST grant 108-2112-M-008-001. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. M. W. C. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation with grant number PHY-2010970. A. G. and J. S. acknowledge support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the GREAT re- search environment grant 2016-06012, funded by the Swedish Research Council. Some of the work by D. A. P. was performed at the Aspen Center for Physics, which is supported by National Science Foundation grant PHY-1607611. D. A. P. was partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation. H. K. thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. This work has been supported by the Spanish Science Ministry Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa Program under grant SEV-2017-0709. AJCT acknowledges support from the Junta de Andalucía (Project P07-TIC-03094) and support from the Spanish Ministry Projects AYA2012-39727-C03-01, AYA2015-71718R and PID2019-109974RB-I00. VAF was supported by RFBR 19-02-00432 grant. I.A. acknowledges support by a Ramón y Cajal grant (RYC-2013-14511) of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación, y Universidades (MICIU) of Spain. He also acknowledges financial support from MCIU through grant AYA2016-80889-P. A. A. M. is funded by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Corporation, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation in support of the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program; he also receives support as a CIERA Fellow by the CIERA Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University). A. C. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation with grant #1907975. W.-H. I., A. K., K.-L. L., C.-C. N., A. P., H. T. and P.-C. Y. acknowledge the support from MoST (Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan) grants 104-2923-M-008-004-MY5, 107-2119-M-008-012, 108-2628-M-007-005-RSP and 108-2112-M-007-025-MY3. D. Dobie is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. S.A. is supported by GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No 1545949. A.S.C. is supported by the GREAT research environment grant 2016-06012, funded by the Swedish Research Council. E. C. K. acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T. research environment and from The Wenner-Gren Foundations. A. J. C. T. thanks fruitful discussions with J. Cepa, E. Fernández-García, J. A. Font, S. Jeong, A. Martín-Carrillo, A. M. Sintes, and S. Sokolov. D.A.H.B. acknowledges research support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. S. B. P. and V. B. acknowledge BRICS grant number 'DST/IMRCD/BRICS/PilotCall1/ProFCheap/2017(G)' for part of the present work. J. S. B was partially supported by a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Data- Driven Discovery grant and a grant from the National Science Foundation, "Conceptualization of a Scalable Cyberinfrastructure Center for Multimessenger Astrophysics."
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)UNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Stockholm UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Elektronen-SynchrotronUNSPECIFIED
Humboldt UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
Indo-US Science and Technology ForumUNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)GROWTH/2015-16
John and Ginger GiovaleUNSPECIFIED
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0007914
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-008-001
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Junta de AndalucíaP07-TIC-03094
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)AYA2012-39727-C03-01
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)AYA2015-71718R
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-109974RB-I00
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchRFBR 19-02-00432
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeRYC-2013-14511
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MICIU)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA)UNSPECIFIED
Northwestern UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)104-2923-M-008-004-MY5
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-008-012
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2628-M-007-005-RSP
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-007-025-MY3
Australian GovernmentUNSPECIFIED
G.R.E.A.T. Research EnvironmentUNSPECIFIED
Wenner-Gren FoundationsUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200824-085517593
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105068
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Aug 2020 16:43
Last Modified:23 Nov 2020 20:17

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