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The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: [C II] 158 μm Emission Line Luminosity Functions at z ~ 4–6

Yan, Lin and Sajina, A. and Loiacono, F. and Lagache, G. and Béthermin, M. and Faisst, A. and Ginolfi, M. and Le Fèvre, O. and Gruppioni, C. and Capak, P. L. and Cassata, P. and Schaerer, D. and Silverman, J. D. and Bardelli, S. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Cimatti, A. and Hathi, N. P. and Lemaux, B. C. and Ibar, E. and Jones, G. C. and Koekemoer, A. M. and Oesch, P. A. and Talia, M. and Pozzi, F. and Riechers, D. A. and Tasca, L. A. and Toft, S. and Vallini, L. and Vergani, D. and Zamorani, G. and Zucca, E. (2020) The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: [C II] 158 μm Emission Line Luminosity Functions at z ~ 4–6. Astrophysical Journal, 905 (2). Art. No. 147. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We present the [C II] 158 μm line luminosity functions (LFs) at z ~ 4–6 using the ALMA observations of 118 sources, which are selected to have UV luminosity M_(1500Å) < −20.2 and optical spectroscopic redshifts in COSMOS and ECDF-S. Of the 118 targets, 75 have significant [C II] detections and 43 are upper limits. This is by far the largest sample of [C II] detections, which allows us to set constraints on the volume density of [C II] emitters at z ~ 4–6. But because this is a UV-selected sample, we are missing [C II]-bright but UV-faint sources, making our constraints strict lower limits. Our derived LFs are statistically consistent with the z ~ 0 [C II] LF at 10^(8.25)–10^(9.75) L_⊙. We compare our results with the upper limits of the [C II] LF derived from serendipitous sources in the ALPINE maps. We also infer the [C II] LFs based on published far-IR and CO LFs at z ~ 4–6. Combining our robust lower limits with these additional estimates, we set further constraints on the true number density of [C II] emitters at z ~ 4–6. These additional LF estimates are largely above our LF at L_([CII]) > 10⁹ L_⊙, suggesting that UV-faint but [C II]-bright sources likely make significant contributions to the [C II] emitter volume density. When we include all the LF estimates, we find that available model predictions underestimate the number densities of [C II] emitters at z ~ 4–6. Finally, we set a constraint on the molecular gas mass density at z ~ 4–6, with ρ_(mol) ~ (2–7) × 10⁷ M_⊙ Mpc⁻³. This is broadly consistent with previous studies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Sajina, A.0000-0002-1917-1200
Loiacono, F.0000-0002-8858-6784
Lagache, G.0000-0003-1492-2519
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Faisst, A.0000-0002-9382-9832
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-8231-821X
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Gruppioni, C.0000-0002-5836-4056
Capak, P. L.0000-0003-3578-6843
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Silverman, J. D.0000-0002-0000-6977
Bardelli, S.0000-0002-8900-0298
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Hathi, N. P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Koekemoer, A. M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Oesch, P. A.0000-0001-5851-6649
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Pozzi, F.0000-0002-7412-647X
Riechers, D. A.0000-0001-9585-1462
Toft, S.0000-0003-3631-7176
Vallini, L.0000-0002-3258-3672
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Zucca, E.0000-0002-5845-8132
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 May 18; revised 2020 October 8; accepted 2020 October 21; published 2020 December 23. We thank Liu, Daizhong from Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie for sending us their results in electronic form. This paper is based on data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF(USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. G.L. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (project CONCERTO, grant agreement No. 788212) and from the Excellence Initiative of Aix-Marseille University-A*Midex, a French "Investissements d'Avenir" program. A.C., C.G., F.L., F.P., and M.T. acknowledge the support from grant PRIN MIUR 2017-20173ML3WW_001. S.T. acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant funding scheme (project "ConTExt," grant No. 648179). The Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN) is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. Our research made use of Astropy,24 a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013; Price-Whelan et al. 2018). L.V. acknowledges funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 746119. G.C.J. acknowledges ERC Advanced Grant 695671 "QUENCH" and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). E.I. acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT through grant N° 1171710. J.D.S. was supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant No. JP18H04346, and the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)788212
Aix-Marseille UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW 001
European Research Council (ERC)648179
Danish National Research Foundation140
Marie Curie Fellowship746119
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171710
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H04346
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:High-redshift galaxies ; Emission line galaxies ; Luminosity function ; Warm ionized medium ; Warm neutral medium ; Molecular gas
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: High-redshift galaxies (734); Emission line galaxies (459); Luminosity function (942); Warm ionized medium (1788); Warm neutral medium (1789); Molecular gas (1073)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200824-123559194
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Lin Yan et al 2020 ApJ 905 147
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105074
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Aug 2020 20:11
Last Modified:05 Jan 2021 00:18

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