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The ALPINE–ALMA [C ii] Survey: Size of Individual Star-forming Galaxies at z = 4–6 and Their Extended Halo Structure

Fujimoto, Seiji and Silverman, John D. and Béthermin, Matthieu and Ginolfi, Michele and Jones, Gareth C. and Le Fèvre, Olivier and Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava and Rujopakarn, Wiphu and Faisst, Andreas L. and Fudamoto, Yoshinobu and Cassata, Paolo and Morselli, Laura and Maiolino, Roberto and Schaerer, Daniel and Capak, Peter and Yan, Lin and Vallini, Livia and Toft, Sune and Loiacono, Federica and Zamorani, Gianni and Talia, Margherita and Narayanan, Desika and Hathi, Nimish P. and Lemaux, Brian C. and Boquien, Médéric and Amorin, Ricardo and Ibar, Edo and Koekemoer, Anton M. and Méndez-Hernández, Hugo and Bardelli, Sandro and Vergani, Daniela and Zucca, Elena and Romano, Michael and Cimatti, Andrea (2020) The ALPINE–ALMA [C ii] Survey: Size of Individual Star-forming Galaxies at z = 4–6 and Their Extended Halo Structure. Astrophysical Journal, 900 (1). Art. No. 1. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We present the physical extent of [C ii] 158 μm line-emitting gas from 46 star-forming galaxies at z = 4–6 from the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate C ii at Early Times (ALPINE). Using exponential profile fits, we measure the effective radius of the [C ii] line (r_(e,C ii) for individual galaxies and compare them with the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum r_(e,UV) from Hubble Space Telescope images. The effective radius r_(e,C ii) exceeds r_(e,UV) by factors of ~2–3, and the ratio of r_(e,C ii)/r_(e,UV) increases as a function of M_(star). We do not find strong evidence that the [C ii] line, rest-frame UV, and far-infrared (FIR) continuum are always displaced over ≃1 kpc scale from each other. We identify 30% of isolated ALPINE sources as having an extended [C ii] component over 10 kpc scales detected at 4.1σ–10.9σ beyond the size of rest-frame UV and FIR continuum. One object has tentative rotating features up to ~10 kpc, where the 3D model fit shows the rotating [C ii]-gas disk spread over 4 times larger than the rest-frame UV-emitting region. Galaxies with the extended [C ii] line structure have high star formation rate, high stellar mass (M_(star)), low Lyα equivalent width, and more blueshifted (redshifted) rest-frame UV metal absorption (Lyα line), as compared to galaxies without such extended [C ii] structures. Although we cannot rule out the possibility that a selection bias toward luminous objects may be responsible for such trends, the star-formation-driven outflow also explains all these trends. Deeper observations are essential to test whether the extended [C ii] line structures are ubiquitous to high-z star-forming galaxies.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Fujimoto, Seiji0000-0001-7201-5066
Silverman, John D.0000-0002-0000-6977
Béthermin, Matthieu0000-0002-3915-2015
Ginolfi, Michele0000-0002-9122-1700
Jones, Gareth C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Le Fèvre, Olivier0000-0001-5891-2596
Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava0000-0003-0348-2917
Rujopakarn, Wiphu0000-0002-0303-499X
Faisst, Andreas L.0000-0002-9382-9832
Fudamoto, Yoshinobu0000-0001-7440-8832
Cassata, Paolo0000-0002-6716-4400
Morselli, Laura0000-0003-0753-2571
Maiolino, Roberto0000-0002-4985-3819
Schaerer, Daniel0000-0001-7144-7182
Capak, Peter0000-0003-3578-6843
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Vallini, Livia0000-0002-3258-3672
Toft, Sune0000-0003-3631-7176
Loiacono, Federica0000-0002-8858-6784
Zamorani, Gianni0000-0002-2318-301X
Talia, Margherita0000-0003-4352-2063
Narayanan, Desika0000-0002-7064-4309
Hathi, Nimish P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Lemaux, Brian C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Boquien, Médéric0000-0003-0946-6176
Amorin, Ricardo0000-0001-5758-1000
Koekemoer, Anton M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Méndez-Hernández, Hugo0000-0003-3057-9677
Bardelli, Sandro0000-0002-8900-0298
Vergani, Daniela0000-0003-0898-2216
Zucca, Elena0000-0002-5845-8132
Romano, Michael0000-0002-9948-3916
Cimatti, Andrea0000-0002-4409-5633
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 February 27; revised 2020 May 16; accepted 2020 May 18; published 2020 August 27. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey. We thank Tanio Díaz-Santos, Andrea Ferrara, Simona Gallerani, Akio Inoue, Sinclaire Manning, Hiroshi Nagai, Kentaro Nagamine, Kimihiko Nakajima, Masami Ouchi, Takatoshi Shibuya, and Francesco Valentino (in alphabetical order) for useful comments and suggestions. This paper makes use of the ALMA data: ADS/JAO. ALMA #2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of the ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by the ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work is based on observations and archival data made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA, along with archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. This research also made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work is based in part on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO program ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791, and made available by the VUDS team at the CESAM data center, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France. This work is based on observations taken by the 3D-HST Treasury Program (GO 12177 and 12328) with the NASA/ESA HST, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Furthermore, this work is based on data from the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, as well as collected at the Subaru Telescope and retrieved from the HSC data archive system, which is operated by the Subaru Telescope and Astronomy Data Center at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Finally, we would also like to recognize the contributions from all of the members of the COSMOS Team who helped in obtaining and reducing the large amount of multiwavelength data that are now publicly available through IRSA at This study is supported by the NAOJ ALMA Scientific Research grant No. 2016-01A. S.F. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant funding scheme (project ConTExt, grant No. 648179). The Cosmic Dawn Center is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. J.D.S. was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI grant No. JP18H04346 and the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan. E.I. acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT through grant No. 1171710. A.C., C.G., F.L., F.P., and M.T. acknowledge the support from grant PRINMIUR 2017-20173ML3WW_001. L.V. acknowledges funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 746119. G.C.J. and R.M. acknowledge ERC Advanced Grant 695671 "QUENCH" and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan2016-01A
European Research Council (ERC)648179
Danish National Research Foundation140
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H04346
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171710
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW_001
Marie Curie Fellowship746119
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Galaxy evolution ; Galaxy formation ; Circumgalactic medium ; Interstellar medium
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy evolution (594); Galaxy formation (595); Circumgalactic medium (1879); Interstellar medium (847)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200828-135138022
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Seiji Fujimoto et al 2020 ApJ 900 1
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105146
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:28 Aug 2020 21:20
Last Modified:16 Sep 2020 15:53

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