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Hydrothermal Precipitation of Sanidine (Adularia) Having Full Al,Si Structural Disorder and Specular Hematite at Maunakea Volcano (Hawai'i) and at Gale Crater (Mars)

Morris, R. V. and Rampe, E. B. and Vaniman, D. T. and Christoffersen, R. and Yen, A. S. and Morrison, S. M. and Ming, D. W. and Achilles, C. N. and Fraeman, A. A. and Le, L. and Tu, V. M. and Ott, J. P. and Treiman, A. H. and Hogancamp, J. V. and Graff, T. G. and Adams, M. and Hamilton, J. C. and Mertzman, S. A. and Bristow, T. F. and Blake, D. F. and Castle, N. and Chipera, S. J. and Craig, P. I. and Des Marais, D. J. and Downs, G. and Downs, R. T. and Hazen, R. M. and Morookian, J.‐M. and Thorpe, M. (2020) Hydrothermal Precipitation of Sanidine (Adularia) Having Full Al,Si Structural Disorder and Specular Hematite at Maunakea Volcano (Hawai'i) and at Gale Crater (Mars). Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets, 125 (9). Art. No. e2019JE006324. ISSN 2169-9097.

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Hydrothermal high sanidine and specular hematite are found within ferric‐rich and gray‐colored cemented basaltic breccia occurring within horizontal, weathering‐resistant strata exposed in an erosional gully of the Pu'u Poliahu cinder cone in the summit region of Maunakea volcano (Hawai'i). The cone was extensively altered by hydrothermal, acid‐sulfate fluids at temperatures up to ~400 °C, and, within strata, plagioclase was removed by dissolution from progenitor Hawaiitic basalt, and sanidine and hematite were precipitated. Fe₂O₃T concentration and Fe ³⁺/∑Fe redox state are ~12 wt.% and ~0.4 for progenitor basalt and 46–60 wt.% and ~1.0 for cemented breccias, respectively, implying open‐system alteration and oxic precipitation. Hydrothermal high sanidine (adularia) is characterized by full Al,Si structural disorder and monoclinic unit‐cell (Rietveld refinement): a = 8.563(19) Å, b = 13.040(6) Å, c = 7.169(4) Å, β = 116.02(10)°, and V = 719.4(19) ų. Hematite (structure confirmed by Rietveld refinement) is the predominant Fe‐bearing phase detected. Coarse size fractions of powdered hematite‐rich breccia (500–1000 μm) are dark and spectrally neutral at visible wavelengths, confirming specular hematite, and SEM images show platy to polyhedral hematite morphologies with longest dimensions >10 μm. Smectite and 10‐Å phyllosilicate, both chemically dominated by Mg as octahedral cation, are additional diagenetic hydrothermal alteration products. By analogy and as a working hypothesis, high sanidine (Kimberly formation) and specular hematite (Mt. Sharp group at Hartmann's Valley and Vera Rubin ridge) at Gale crater are interpreted as diagenetic alteration products of Martian basaltic material by hydrothermal processes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemData ItemUnit-Cell Parameter Spreadsheet ItemHematite Spectra and Spectral Parameters Spreadsheet ItemX-Ray Diffraction Patterns Spreadsheet
Morris, R. V.0000-0003-1413-4002
Rampe, E. B.0000-0002-6999-0028
Vaniman, D. T.0000-0001-7661-2626
Yen, A. S.0000-0003-2410-0412
Morrison, S. M.0000-0002-1712-8057
Ming, D. W.0000-0003-0567-8876
Achilles, C. N.0000-0001-9185-6768
Fraeman, A. A.0000-0003-4017-5158
Treiman, A. H.0000-0002-8073-2839
Mertzman, S. A.0000-0001-9664-0608
Bristow, T. F.0000-0001-6725-0555
Castle, N.0000-0002-0608-1249
Craig, P. I.0000-0003-4080-4997
Des Marais, D. J.0000-0002-6827-5831
Thorpe, M.0000-0002-1235-9016
Additional Information:© 2020 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. Issue Online: 10 September 2020; Version of Record online: 10 September 2020; Accepted manuscript online: 19 June 2020; Manuscript accepted: 27 May 2020; Manuscript revised: 22 May 2020; Manuscript received: 09 December 2019. Maunakea field work and samples were obtained in partnership with the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems with permission from the Office of Mauna Kea Management, the Mauna Kea Management Board, Board of Land and Natural Resources, and the cultural Hawaiian Kahu Kū Mauna Council. We are greatly appreciative of the shared knowledge and sustained efforts of these organizations in the protection and preservation of the unique cultural and natural resources of Maunakea. The manuscript benefitted from careful reading and comments by anonymous reviewers and from discussion with John Grotzinger. Supporting Information consists of two spreadsheets available for downloading from the Open Data Repository ( (a) direct download of unit‐cell parameters for sanidine and hematite ( and (b) direct download of hematite spectra and spectral parameters ( and direct download of Maunakea XRD patterns ( Support for this work by the NASA Mars Science Laboratory Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (under a contract with NASA) is acknowledged.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Mars; Gale crater; X‐ray diffraction; sanidine; hematite; Maunakea
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200901-120100548
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Morris, R. V., Rampe, E. B., Vaniman, D. T., Christoffersen, R., Yen, A. S., & Morrison, S. M., et al. (2020). Hydrothermal precipitation of sanidine (adularia) having full Al,Si structural disorder and specular hematite at Maunakea volcano (Hawai'i) and at Gale Crater (Mars). Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 125, e2019JE006324.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105202
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:08 Sep 2020 19:49
Last Modified:22 Oct 2020 17:30

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