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Gravitational-wave Constraints on the Equatorial Ellipticity of Millisecond Pulsars

Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abraham, S. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, A. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Angelova, S. V. and Ansoldi, S. and Antelis, J. M. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Arun, K. G. and Asali, Y. and Ascenzi, S. and Ashton, G. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Aufmuth, P. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Avendano, V. and Babak, S. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Baer, A. M. and Bagnasco, S. and Baird, J. and Ball, M. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Bals, A. and Balsamo, A. and Baltus, G. and Banagiri, S. and Bankar, D. and Bankar, R. S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barneo, P. and Barnum, S. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Bazzan, M. and Becher, B. R. and Bécsy, B. and Bedakihale, V. M. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Beniwal, D. and Benjamin, M. G. and Bennett, T. F. and Bentley, J. D. and Bergamin, F. and Berger, B. K. and Bergmann, G. and Bernuzzi, S. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhandare, R. and Bhandari, A. V. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Bidler, J. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M. -A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Blanch, O. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boer, M. and Boetzel, Y. and Bogaert, G. and Boldrini, M. and Bondu, F. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Bossilkov, V. and Boudart, V. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Bramley, A. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Breschi, M. and Briant, T. and Briggs, J. H. and Brighenti, F. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brooks, J. and Brown, D. D. and Brunett, S. and Bruno, G. and Bruntz, R. and Buikema, A. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buskulic, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cabero, M. and Cadonati, L. and Caesar, M. and Cagnoli, G. and Cahillane, C. and Calderón Bustillo, J. and Callaghan, J. D. and Callister, T. A. and Calloni, E. and Camp, J. B. and Canepa, M. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, H. and Cao, J. and Carapella, G. and Carbognani, F. and Carney, M. F. and Carpinelli, M. and Carullo, G. and Carver, T. L. and Casanueva Diaz, J. and Casentini, C. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglià, M. and Cavalier, F. and Cavalieri, R. and Cella, G. and Cerdá-Durán, P. and Cesarini, E. and Chaibi, W. and Chakravarti, K. and Chan, C. -L. and Chan, C. and Chandra, K. and Chanial, P. and Chao, S. and Charlton, P. and Chase, E. A. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Chatterjee, D. and Chaturvedi, M. and Chen, A. and Chen, H. Y. and Chen, X. and Chen, Y. and Cheng, H.-P. and Cheong, C. K. and Chia, H. Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chierici, R. and Chincarini, A. and Chiummo, A. and Cho, G. and Cho, H. S. and Cho, M. and Choate, S. and Christensen, N. and Chu, Q. and Chua, S. and Chung, K. W. and Chung, S. and Ciani, G. and Ciecielag, P. and Cieślar, M. and Cifaldi, M. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Ciolfi, R. and Cipriano, F. and Cirone, A. and Clara, F. and Clark, E. N. and Clark, J. 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R. and Zadrożny, A. and Zanolin, M. and Zelenova, T. and Zendri, J.-P. and Zevin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhang, R. and Zhang, T. and Zhao, C. and Zhao, G. and Zhou, M. and Zhou, Z. and Zhu, X. J. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. and Keith, M. J. and Lyne, A. G. and Palfreyman, J. and Shaw, B. and Stappers, B. W. and Weltevrede, P. (2020) Gravitational-wave Constraints on the Equatorial Ellipticity of Millisecond Pulsars. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 902 (1). Art. No. L21. ISSN 2041-8213. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200902-065903281

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Abstract

We present a search for continuous gravitational waves from five radio pulsars, comprising three recycled pulsars (PSR J0437−4715, PSR J0711−6830, and PSR J0737−3039A) and two young pulsars: the Crab pulsar (J0534+2200) and the Vela pulsar (J0835−4510). We use data from the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Virgo combined with data from their first and second observing runs. For the first time, we are able to match (for PSR J0437−4715) or surpass (for PSR J0711−6830) the indirect limits on gravitational-wave emission from recycled pulsars inferred from their observed spin-downs, and constrain their equatorial ellipticities to be less than 10⁻⁸. For each of the five pulsars, we perform targeted searches that assume a tight coupling between the gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signal phase evolution. We also present constraints on PSR J0711−6830, the Crab pulsar, and the Vela pulsar from a search that relaxes this assumption, allowing the gravitational-wave signal to vary from the electromagnetic expectation within a narrow band of frequencies and frequency derivatives.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abb655DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.14251arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Blackman, J.0000-0002-7113-0289
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Chen, Y.0000-0002-9730-9463
Coughlin, M. W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Davis, D.0000-0001-5620-6751
De Laurentis, M.0000-0002-9945-682X
Gossan, S. E.0000-0002-8138-9198
Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Korth, W. Z.0000-0003-3527-1348
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Lo, R. K. L.0000-0003-1561-6716
Ma, Y.0000-0001-7192-4874
MacMillan, I. A. O.0000-0002-6927-1031
Markowitz, A.0000-0003-0223-2342
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Tso, R.0000-0003-4464-0117
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Varma, V.0000-0002-9994-1761
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yamamoto, H.0000-0001-6919-9570
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
Yu, Haocun0000-0002-7597-098X
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 July 28; revised 2020 September 4; accepted 2020 September 5; published 2020 October 12. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d'Innovació Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concertés (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN, and CNRS for provision of computational resources. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. Software: The parameter estimation was performed with the LALInference (Veitch et al. 2015) library within LALSuite (LIGO Scientific Collaboration 2018). All plots have been prepared using Matplotlib (Hunter 2007).
Group:LIGO
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació, Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Industry CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Gravitational waves ; Neutron stars ; Pulsars ; Gravitational wave sources
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gravitational waves (678); Neutron stars (1108); Pulsars (1306); Gravitational wave sources (677)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200902-065903281
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200902-065903281
Official Citation:R. Abbott et al 2020 ApJL 902 L21
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105207
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Sep 2020 19:30
Last Modified:23 Oct 2020 17:54

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