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Three-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae from low-mass progenitors with implications for Crab

Stockinger, G. and Janka, H.-T. and Kresse, D. and Melson, T. and Ertl, T. and Gabler, M. and Gessner, A. and Wongwathanarat, A. and Tolstov, A. and Leung, S.-C. and Nomoto, K. and Heger, A. (2020) Three-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae from low-mass progenitors with implications for Crab. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 496 (2). pp. 2039-2084. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa1691.

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We present 3D full-sphere supernova simulations of non-rotating low-mass (∼9 M_⊙) progenitors, covering the entire evolution from core collapse through bounce and shock revival, through shock breakout from the stellar surface, until fallback is completed several days later. We obtain low-energy explosions (∼0.5–1.0 × 10⁵⁰ erg) of iron-core progenitors at the low-mass end of the core-collapse supernova (LMCCSN) domain and compare to a super-AGB (sAGB) progenitor with an oxygen–neon–magnesium core that collapses and explodes as electron-capture supernova (ECSN). The onset of the explosion in the LMCCSN models is modelled self-consistently using the VERTEX-PROMETHEUS code, whereas the ECSN explosion is modelled using parametric neutrino transport in the PROMETHEUS-HOTB code, choosing different explosion energies in the range of previous self-consistent models. The sAGB and LMCCSN progenitors that share structural similarities have almost spherical explosions with little metal mixing into the hydrogen envelope. A LMCCSN with less second dredge-up results in a highly asymmetric explosion. It shows efficient mixing and dramatic shock deceleration in the extended hydrogen envelope. Both properties allow fast nickel plumes to catch up with the shock, leading to extreme shock deformation and aspherical shock breakout. Fallback masses of ≲ 5×10⁻³ M_⊙ have no significant effects on the neutron star (NS) masses and kicks. The anisotropic fallback carries considerable angular momentum, however, and determines the spin of the newly born NS. The LMCCSN model with less second dredge-up results in a hydrodynamic and neutrino-induced NS kick of >40 km s⁻¹ and a NS spin period of ∼30 ms, both not largely different from those of the Crab pulsar at birth.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Janka, H.-T.0000-0002-0831-3330
Leung, S.-C.0000-0002-4972-3803
Nomoto, K.0000-0001-9553-0685
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Accepted 2020 June 10. Received 2020 June 4; in original form 2020 May 6. Published: 15 June 2020. Valuable comments by Alexandra Kozyreva on the manuscript and by Noam Soker and Thomas Tauris on the arXiv posting are acknowledged. G.S. and M.G. thank Margarita Petkova of the Computational Center for Particle and Astrophysics (C2PAP) for assistance in developing a new parallel version of the PROMETHEUS-HOTB code. G.S. also wants to thank Naveen Yadav and Ninoy Rahman for fruitful discussions and comments on the paper and also thanks Anders Jerkstrand, Oliver Just, and Ricard Ardevol-Pulpillo for useful hints and guidance at an early stage of the project. H.-T.J. is very grateful to Rob Fesen for sharing his deep insights into the observational properties of the Crab SN remnant. K.N. would like to thank Sam Jones and Raphael Hirschi for the collaborative work on the evolution of super-AGB stars. At Garching, funding by the European Research Council through Grant ERC-AdG No. 341157-COCO2CASA and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) through Sonderforschungsbereich (Collaborative Research Centre) SFB-1258 ‘Neutrinos and Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics (NDM)’ and under Germany’s Excellence Strategy through Cluster of Excellence ORIGINS (EXC-2094)—390783311 is acknowledged. Computer resources for this project have been provided by the Max Planck Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF) on the HPC systems Cobra and Draco, and by the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) under LRZ project ID: pn69ho, GAUSS Call 13 project ID: pr48ra, and GAUSS Call 15 project ID: pr74de. S.-C.L. acknowledges support from HST-AR-15021.001-A. K.N. received support by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan, and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP17K05382 and JP20K04024. A.H. was supported, in part, by JINA-CEE through US NSF grant PHY-1430152; by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), through project number CE170100004; by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013; by a grant from Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No. 16DZ2260200); and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11655002). Software: VERTEX-PROMETHEUS (Fryxell, Müller & Arnett 1989; Rampp & Janka 2002; Buras et al. 2006), PROMETHEUS-HOTB(Kifonidis et al. 2003; Scheck et al. 2006; Arcones et al. 2007; Ertl et al. 2016), NUMPY and SCIPY (Jones et al. 2001), IPYTHON (Pérez & Granger 2007), MATPLOTLIB (Hunter 2007), VisIt (Childs et al. 2012). Data availability: The data underlying this article will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.
Group:TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)341157-COCO2CASA
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB-1258
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)EXC-2094
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)390783311
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17K05382
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20K04024
Australian Research CouncilCE170100004
Australian Research CouncilCE170100013
Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality16DZ2260200
National Natural Science Foundation of China11655002
Subject Keywords:hydrodynamics – neutrinos – stars: massive – stars: neutron – supernovae: general – supernovae: individual: Crab
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200903-123802122
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:G Stockinger, H-T Janka, D Kresse, T Melson, T Ertl, M Gabler, A Gessner, A Wongwathanarat, A Tolstov, S-C Leung, K Nomoto, A Heger, Three-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae from low-mass progenitors with implications for Crab, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 496, Issue 2, August 2020, Pages 2039–2084,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105242
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:08 Sep 2020 17:29
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:41

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