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Millimeter-wave Point Sources from the 2500 Square Degree SPT-SZ Survey: Catalog and Population Statistics

Everett, W. B. and Zhang, L. and Crawford, T. M. and Vieira, J. D. and Aravena, M. and Archipley, M. A. and Austermann, J. E. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chang, C. L. and Chapman, S. and Crites, A. T. and de Haan, T. and Dobbs, M. A. and George, E. M. and Halverson, N. W. and Harrington, N. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hrubes, J. D. and Knox, L. and Lee, A. T. and Luong-Van, D. and Mangian, A. C. and Marrone, D. P. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Mocanu, L. M. and Mohr, J. J. and Natoli, T. and Padin, S. and Pryke, C. and Reichardt, C. L. and Reuter, C. A. and Ruhl, J. E. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Shirokoff, E. and Spilker, J. S. and Stalder, B. and Staniszewski, Z. and Stark, A. A. and Story, K. T. and Switzer, E. R. and Vanderlinde, K. and Weiß, A. and Williamson, R. (2020) Millimeter-wave Point Sources from the 2500 Square Degree SPT-SZ Survey: Catalog and Population Statistics. Astrophysical Journal, 900 (1). Art. No. 55. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We present a catalog of emissive point sources detected in the SPT-SZ survey, a contiguous 2530 square degree area surveyed with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) from 2008–2011 in three bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. The catalog contains 4845 sources measured at a significance of 4.5σ or greater in at least one band, corresponding to detections above approximately 9.8, 5.8, and 20.4 mJy in 95, 150, and 220 GHz, respectively. The spectral behavior in the SPT bands is used for source classification into two populations based on the underlying physical mechanisms of compact, emissive sources that are bright at millimeter wavelengths: synchrotron radiation from active galactic nuclei and thermal emission from dust. The latter population includes a component of high-redshift sources often referred to as submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). In the relatively bright flux ranges probed by the survey, these sources are expected to be magnified by strong gravitational lensing. The survey also contains sources consistent with protoclusters, groups of dusty galaxies at high redshift undergoing collapse. We cross-match the SPT-SZ catalog with external catalogs at radio, infrared, and X-ray wavelengths and identify available redshift information. The catalog splits into 3980 synchrotron-dominated and 865 dust-dominated sources, and we determine a list of 506 SMGs. Ten sources in the catalog are identified as stars. We calculate number counts for the full catalog, and synchrotron and dusty components, using a bootstrap method and compare our measured counts with models. This paper represents the third and final catalog of point sources in the SPT-SZ survey.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Everett, W. B.0000-0002-5370-6651
Crawford, T. M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Vieira, J. D.0000-0001-7192-3871
Aravena, M.0000-0002-6290-3198
Austermann, J. E.0000-0002-6338-0069
Benson, B. A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Bleem, L. E.0000-0001-7665-5079
Carlstrom, J. E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chang, C. L.0000-0002-6311-0448
de Haan, T.0000-0001-5105-9473
George, E. M.0000-0001-7874-0445
Halverson, N. W.0000-0003-2606-9340
Mangian, A. C.0000-0003-2385-6904
Marrone, D. P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Mohr, J. J.0000-0002-6875-2087
Reichardt, C. L.0000-0003-2226-9169
Reuter, C. A.0000-0001-7477-1586
Sayre, J. T.0000-0002-1062-1842
Shirokoff, E.0000-0002-2757-1423
Spilker, J. S.0000-0003-3256-5615
Stalder, B.0000-0003-0973-4900
Stark, A. A.0000-0002-2718-9996
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 March 5; revised 2020 June 5; accepted 2020 June 16; published 2020 August 31. The SPT is supported by the NSF through grant PLR-1248097, with partial support through PHY-1125897, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. D.P.M. and J.D.V. acknowledge support from the US NSF under grants AST-1715213 and AST-1716127. J.D.V. acknowledges support from an A. P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship. C. Reichardt acknowledges the support from an Australian Research Council's Future Fellowship (FT150100074). B.B. is supported by the Fermi Research Alliance LLC under contract no. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Work at Argonne National Lab is supported by UChicago Argonne LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Laboratory, is operated under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics under Award Number DE-SC-0015640. Thanks to Dr. Graham Harper for conversations regarding cool stars and their emission mechanisms, and thanks to Diego Herranz Muñoz from the Planck Collaboration and Dr. Megan Gralla from the ACT collaboration for supplying number counts. This publication makes use of data products from the WISE, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research uses observations from the AKARI mission, a JAXA project with the participation of the ESA. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. This publication makes use of data products from the Herschel Observatory; Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. This research makes use of data products from the Planck Observatory (, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States, NASA, and Canada.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilFT150100074
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-06CH11357
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC-0015640
Subject Keywords:High-redshift galaxies ; Submillimeter astronomy ; Surveys
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: High-redshift galaxies (734); Submillimeter astronomy (1647); Surveys (1671)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200909-095955618
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:W. B. Everett et al 2020 ApJ 900 55
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105291
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Sep 2020 17:22
Last Modified:09 Sep 2020 17:22

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