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Hydrodynamic Simulations of Pre-supernova Outbursts in Red Supergiants: Asphericity and Mass Loss

Leung, Shing-Chi and Fuller, Jim (2020) Hydrodynamic Simulations of Pre-supernova Outbursts in Red Supergiants: Asphericity and Mass Loss. Astrophysical Journal, 900 (2). Art. No. 99. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abac5d.

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The activity of a massive star approaching core-collapse can strongly affect the appearance of the star and its subsequent supernova. Late-phase convective nuclear burning generates waves that propagate toward the stellar surface, heating the envelope and potentially triggering mass loss. In this work, we improve on previous one-dimensional models by performing two-dimensional simulations of the pre-supernova mass ejection phase due to deposition of wave energy. Beginning with stellar evolutionary models of a 15 M_⊙ red supergiant star during core O-burning, we treat the rate and duration of energy deposition as model parameters and examine the mass-loss dependence and the pre-explosion morphology accordingly. Unlike one-dimensional models, density inversions due to wave heating are smoothed by Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities, and the primary effect of wave heating is to radially expand the star's hydrogen envelope. For low heating rates with long durations, the expansion is nearly homologous, whereas high but short-lived heating can generate a shock that drives envelope expansion and results in a qualitatively different density profile at the time of core-collapse. Asymmetries are fairly small, and large amounts of mass loss are unlikely unless the wave heating exceeds expectations. We discuss implications for pre-supernova stellar variability and supernovae light curves.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Leung, Shing-Chi0000-0002-4972-3803
Fuller, Jim0000-0002-4544-0750
Additional Information:© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 June 25; revised 2020 July 31; accepted 2020 August 3; published 2020 September 7, We thank Paul Duffell for useful insight regarding the simulations and results. S.C.L. acknowledges support from grants HST-AR-15021.001-A and 80NSSC18K1017. J.F. is thankful for support through an Innovator Grant from The Rose Hills Foundation, and the Sloan Foundation through grant FG-2018-10515. We thank Frank X. Timmes for his open-source subroutines for the Helmholtz equation of state and the template for the seven-isotope nuclear reaction network. We also thank the developers of the stellar evolution code MESA for their efforts in making the code public. Software: MESA (v8118); (Paxton et al. 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017).
Group:Astronomy Department, TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-AR-15021.001-A
Rose Hills FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationFG-2018-10515
Subject Keywords:Stellar evolution ; Hydrodynamical simulations ; Stellar atmospheres
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Stellar evolution (1599); Hydrodynamical simulations (767); Stellar atmospheres (1584)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200911-133134353
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Official Citation:Shing-Chi Leung and Jim Fuller 2020 ApJ 900 99
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105334
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:15 Sep 2020 21:18
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:42

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