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Sensitivity and performance of the Advanced LIGO detectors in the third observing run

Buikema, A. and Cahillane, C. and Mansell, G. L. and Blair, C. D. and Abbott, R. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Ananyeva, A. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Areeda, J. S. and Asali, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Austin, C. and Baer, A. M. and Ball, M. and Ballmer, S. W. and Banagiri, S. and Barker, D. and Barsotti, L. and Bartlett, J. and Berger, B. K. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S. and Blair, R. M. and Bode, N. and Booker, P. and Bork, R. and Bramley, A. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. D. and Cannon, K. C. and Chen, X. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Clara, F. and Cooper, S. J. and Corley, K. R. and Countryman, S. T. and Covas, P. B. and Coyne, D. C. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Davis, D. and Di Fronzo, C. and Dooley, K. L. and Driggers, J. C. and Dupej, P. and Dwyer, S. E. and Effler, A. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Feicht, J. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Green, A. C. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hanks, J. and Hanson, J. and Hardwick, T. and Hasskew, R. K. and Heintze, M. C. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Holland, N. A. and Jones, J. D. and Kandhasamy, S. and Karki, S. and Kasprzack, M. and Kawabe, K. and Kijbunchoo, N. and King, P. J. and Kissel, J. S. and Kumar, Rahul and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lantz, B. and Laxen, M. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Leviton, J. and Liu, J. and Lormand, M. and Lundgren, A. P. and Macas, R. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Martynov, D. V. and Mason, K. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McCormick, S. and McCuller, L. and McIver, J. and McRae, T. and Mendell, G. and Merfeld, K. and Merilh, E. L. and Meylahn, F. and Mistry, T. and Mittleman, R. and Moreno, G. and Mow-Lowry, C. M. and Mozzon, S. and Mullavey, A. and Nelson, T. J. N. and Nguyen, P. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and Oram, Richard J. and O’Reilly, B. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Palamos, J. R. and Parker, W. and Payne, E. and Pele, A. and Penhorwood, R. and Perez, C. J. and Pirello, M. and Radkins, H. and Ramirez, K. E. and Richardson, J. W. and Riles, K. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Romel, C. L. and Romie, J. H. and Ross, M. P. and Ryan, K. and Sadecki, T. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Saravanan, T. R. and Savage, R. L. and Schaetzl, D. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. M. S. and Schwartz, E. and Sellers, D. and Shaffer, T. and Sigg, D. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Smith, J. R. and Soni, S. and Sorazu, B. and Spencer, A. P. and Strain, K. A. and Sun, L. and Szczepańczyk, M. J. and Thomas, M. and Thomas, P. and Thorne, K. A. and Toland, K. and Torrie, C. I. and Traylor, G. and Tse, M. and Urban, A. L. and Vajente, G. and Valdes, G. and Vander-Hyde, D. C. and Veitch, P. J. and Venkateswara, K. and Venugopalan, G. and Viets, A. D. and Vo, T. and Vorvick, C. and Wade, M. and Ward, R. L. and Warner, J. and Weaver, B. and Weiss, R. and Whittle, C. and Willke, B. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, L. and Yamamoto, H. and Yu, Hang and Yu, Haocun and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. (2020) Sensitivity and performance of the Advanced LIGO detectors in the third observing run. Physical Review D, 102 (6). Art. No. 062003. ISSN 2470-0010.

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On April 1st, 2019, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO), joined by the Advanced Virgo detector, began the third observing run, a year-long dedicated search for gravitational radiation. The LIGO detectors have achieved a higher duty cycle and greater sensitivity to gravitational waves than ever before, with LIGO Hanford achieving angle-averaged sensitivity to binary neutron star coalescences to a distance of 111 Mpc, and LIGO Livingston to 134 Mpc with duty factors of 74.6% and 77.0% respectively. The improvement in sensitivity and stability is a result of several upgrades to the detectors, including doubled intracavity power, the addition of an in-vacuum optical parametric oscillator for squeezed-light injection, replacement of core optics and end reaction masses, and installation of acoustic mode dampers. This paper explores the purposes behind these upgrades, and explains to the best of our knowledge the noise currently limiting the sensitivity of each detector.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Buikema, A.0000-0001-9409-5757
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Blair, C. D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yamamoto, H.0000-0001-6919-9570
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2020 Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. Received 8 August 2020; accepted 14 August 2020; published 11 September 2020. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, and the Max-Planck-Society (MPS) for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors acknowledge the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Fellows program for additional support. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation, and operates under cooperative Agreement No. PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under Award No. PHY-0823459. This paper carries LIGO Document Number LIGO-P2000122.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
LIGO Scientific Collaboration FellowsUNSPECIFIED
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Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP2000122
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200915-150420204
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105390
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Sep 2020 23:59
Last Modified:15 Sep 2020 23:59

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