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The Palomar Transient Factory Core-Collapse Supernova Host-Galaxy Sample. I. Host-Galaxy Distribution Functions and Environment-Dependence of CCSNe

Schulze, Steve and Yaron, Ofer and Sollerman, Jesper and Leloudas, Giorgos and Gal, Amit and Wright, Angus H. and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Ofek, Eran O. and Perley, Daniel A. and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kulkarni, Shri R. and Nugent, Peter E. and Quimby, Robert M. and Sullivan, Mark and Strothjohann, Nora Linn and Arcavi, Iair and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Bianco, Federica and Bloom, Joshua S. and De, Kishalay and Fraser, Morgan and Fremling, Christoffer U. and Horesh, Assaf and Johansson, Joel and Kelly, Patrick L. and Knezevic, Sladjana and Maguire, Kate and Nyholm, Anders and Papadogiannakis, Semeli and Petrushevska, Tanja and Rubin, Adam and Yan, Lin and Yang, Yi and Adams, Scott M. and Bufano, Filomena and Clubb, Kelsey I. and Foley, Ryan J. and Green, Yoav and Harmanen, Jussi and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Hook, Isobel M. and Hosseinzadeh, Griffin and Howell, D. Andrew and Kong, Albert K. H. and Kotak, Rubina and Matheson, Thomas and McCully, Curtis and Milisavljevic, Dan and Pan, Yen-Chen and Poznanski, Dovi and Shivvers, Isaac and van Velzen, Sjoert (2020) The Palomar Transient Factory Core-Collapse Supernova Host-Galaxy Sample. I. Host-Galaxy Distribution Functions and Environment-Dependence of CCSNe. . (Unpublished)

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Several thousand core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) of different flavors have been discovered so far. However, identifying their progenitors has remained an outstanding open question in astrophysics. Studies of SN host galaxies have proven to be powerful in providing constraints on the progenitor populations. In this paper, we present all CCSNe detected between 2009 and 2017 by the Palomar Transient Factory. This sample includes 888 SNe of 12 distinct classes out to redshift z ≈ 1. We present the photometric properties of their host galaxies from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared and model the host-galaxy spectral energy distributions to derive physical properties. The galaxy mass functions of Type Ic, Ib, IIb, II, and IIn SNe ranges from 10⁵ to 10^(11.5) M_⊙, probing the entire mass range of star-forming galaxies down to the least-massive star-forming galaxies known. Moreover, the galaxy mass distributions are consistent with models of star-formation-weighted mass functions. Regular CCSNe are hence direct tracers of star formation. Small but notable differences exist between some of the SN classes. Type Ib/c SNe prefer galaxies with slightly higher masses (i.e., higher metallicities) and star-formation rates than Type IIb and II SNe. These differences are less pronounced than previously thought. H-poor SLSNe and SNe~Ic-BL are scarce in galaxies above 10¹⁰ M_⊙. Their progenitors require environments with metallicities of <0.4 and <1 solar, respectively. In addition, the hosts of H-poor SLSNe are dominated by a younger stellar population than all other classes of CCSNe. Our findings corroborate the notion that low-metallicity and young age play an important role in the formation of SLSN progenitors.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Leloudas, Giorgos0000-0002-8597-0756
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, Shri R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Quimby, Robert M.0000-0001-9171-5236
Sullivan, Mark0000-0001-9053-4820
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
Ben-Ami, Sagi0000-0001-6760-3074
Bianco, Federica0000-0003-1953-8727
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Fraser, Morgan0000-0003-2191-1674
Fremling, Christoffer U.0000-0002-4223-103X
Horesh, Assaf0000-0002-5936-1156
Johansson, Joel0000-0001-5975-290X
Kelly, Patrick L.0000-0003-3142-997X
Maguire, Kate0000-0002-9770-3508
Rubin, Adam0000-0003-4557-0632
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Yang, Yi0000-0002-9024-4150
Adams, Scott M.0000-0001-5855-5939
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Hook, Isobel M.0000-0002-2960-978X
Hosseinzadeh, Griffin0000-0002-0832-2974
Howell, D. Andrew0000-0003-4253-656X
Kong, Albert K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Kotak, Rubina0000-0001-5455-3653
Matheson, Thomas0000-0001-6685-0479
McCully, Curtis0000-0001-5807-7893
Milisavljevic, Dan0000-0002-0763-3885
Shivvers, Isaac0000-0003-3373-8047
van Velzen, Sjoert0000-0002-3859-8074
Additional Information:We thank Nino Cucchiara, Thomas de Jaeger, Harald Ebeling, David Levitan, Bruce Margon, Jon Mauerhan, Jacob Rex, David Sand, Jeffrey M. Silverman, Vicky Toy, and Brad Tucker for performing some of the observations and Ido Irani and Maryam Modjaz for valuable discussions. I. Arcavi is a CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholar in the Gravity and the Extreme Universe Program and acknowledges support from that program, from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement number 852097), from the Israel Science Foundation (grant numbers 2108/18 and 2752/19), from the United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), and from the Israeli Council for Higher Education Alon Fellowship. J. S. Bloom was partially supported by a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Data-Driven Discovery grant. The UCSC team is supported in part by NASA grant NNG17PX03C, the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and by a fellowship from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to R. J. Foley. A. V. Filippenko acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). M. Fraser is supported by a Royal Society - Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. A. GalYam’s research is supported by the EU via ERC grant 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; A. Gal-Yam is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. A. Y. Q. Ho was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant DGE-1144469, and by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE grant 1545949. D. A. Howell, G. Hosseinzadeh, and C. McCully were supported by NSF grant AST-1313484. M. M. Kasliwal acknowledges support by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the National Science Foundation under PIRE Grant No 1545949. S. Knežević was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through contract 451-03-68/2020/14/20002 made with the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade. G. Leloudas is supported by a research grant (19054) from VILLUM FONDEN. R. Lunnan is supported by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 European Union (EU) Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). K. Maguire acknowledges funding from EU H2020 ERC grant 758638 T. Petrushevska acknowledges the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (grants I0-0033, P1-0031, J1-8136 and Z1-1853). S. Schulze gratefully acknowledges support provided by the Feinberg Graduate School at the Weizmann Institute, Israel. A. H. Wright is supported by an European Research Council Consolidator Grant (770935). The Palomar Transient Factory project is a scientific collaboration among the California Institute of Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, the Oskar Klein Center, the Weizmann Institute of Science, the TANGO Program of the University System of Taiwan, and the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe. LANL participation in iPTF is supported by the US Department of Energy as a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. This work makes use of data from the Las Cumbres Observatory network. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. We thank the staffs of the various observatories at which data were obtained for their excellent assistance. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration, including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) / University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional / MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE). This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The LBNL Physics Division is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science High Energy Physics. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231, provided staff, computational resources, and data storage for this project. The Computational HEP program in The Department of Energy’s Science Office of High Energy Physics provided resources through the “Cosmology Data Repository” project (Grant #KA2401022). The data presented here were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. Software: Astropy version 3.2.3 (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis (FSPS; Conroy et al. 2009), High Order Transform of Psf ANd Template Subtraction version 5.1.11 (Hotpants; Becker 2015), IRAF (Tody 1986), LAMBDAR (Wright et al. 2016), Prospector version 0.3 (Leja et al. 2017), python-fsps (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2014) scikitlearn version 0.21.2 (Pedregosa et al. 2011), Software for Calibrating AstroMetry and Photometry (SCAMP; Bertin 2006) version 2.0.4, Source Extractor version 2.19.5 (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), Supernova Identification version 5.0 (Blondin & Tonry 2007), Superfit version 3.5 (Howell et al. 2005)
Group:Astronomy Department, Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)852097
Israel Science Foundation2108/18
Israel Science Foundation2752/19
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Council for Higher Education (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)451-03-68/2020/14/20002
Marie Curie Fellowship794467
European Research Council (ERC)758638
Slovenian Research AgencyI0-0033
Slovenian Research AgencyP1-0031
Slovenian Research AgencyJ1-8136
Slovenian Research AgencyZ1-1853
European Research Council (ERC)770935
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Department of Energy (DOE)KA2401022
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general - galaxies: star formation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200916-112847454
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105411
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Sep 2020 20:24
Last Modified:24 Sep 2020 20:24

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