A Caltech Library Service

The Palomar Transient Factory Core-collapse Supernova Host-galaxy Sample. I. Host-galaxy Distribution Functions and Environment Dependence of Core-collapse Supernovae

Schulze, Steve and Yaron, Ofer and Sollerman, Jesper and Leloudas, Giorgos and Gal, Amit and Wright, Angus H. and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Ofek, Eran O. and Perley, Daniel A. and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kulkarni, Shri R. and Neill, James D. and Nugent, Peter E. and Quimby, Robert M. and Sullivan, Mark and Strothjohann, Nora Linn and Arcavi, Iair and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Bianco, Federica and Bloom, Joshua S. and De, Kishalay and Fraser, Morgan and Fremling, Christoffer U. and Horesh, Assaf and Johansson, Joel and Kelly, Patrick L. and Knežević, Nikola and Knežević, Sladjana and Maguire, Kate and Nyholm, Anders and Papadogiannakis, Semeli and Petrushevska, Tanja and Rubin, Adam and Yan, Lin and Yang, Yi and Adams, Scott M. and Bufano, Filomena and Clubb, Kelsey I. and Foley, Ryan J. and Green, Yoav and Harmanen, Jussi and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Hook, Isobel M. and Hosseinzadeh, Griffin and Howell, D. Andrew and Kong, Albert K. H. and Kotak, Rubina and Matheson, Thomas and McCully, Curtis and Milisavljevic, Dan and Pan, Yen-Chen and Poznanski, Dovi and Shivvers, Isaac and van Velzen, Sjoert and Verbeek, Kars K. (2021) The Palomar Transient Factory Core-collapse Supernova Host-galaxy Sample. I. Host-galaxy Distribution Functions and Environment Dependence of Core-collapse Supernovae. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 255 (2). Art. No. 29. ISSN 0067-0049. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/abff5e.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Several thousand core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) of different flavors have been discovered so far. However, identifying their progenitors has remained an outstanding open question in astrophysics. Studies of SN host galaxies have proven to be powerful in providing constraints on the progenitor populations. In this paper, we present all CCSNe detected between 2009 and 2017 by the Palomar Transient Factory. This sample includes 888 SNe of 12 distinct classes out to redshift z ≈ 1. We present the photometric properties of their host galaxies from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared and model the host-galaxy spectral energy distributions to derive physical properties. The galaxy mass function of Type Ic, Ib, IIb, II, and IIn SNe ranges from 10⁵ to 10^(11.5) M_⊙, probing the entire mass range of star-forming galaxies down to the least-massive star-forming galaxies known. Moreover, the galaxy mass distributions are consistent with models of star-formation-weighted mass functions. Regular CCSNe are hence direct tracers of star formation. Small but notable differences exist between some of the SN classes. Type Ib/c SNe prefer galaxies with slightly higher masses (i.e., higher metallicities) and star formation rates than Type IIb and II SNe. These differences are less pronounced than previously thought. H-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) and SNe Ic-BL are scarce in galaxies above 10¹⁰ M_⊙. Their progenitors require environments with metallicities of < 0.4 and < 1 solar, respectively. In addition, the hosts of H-poor SLSNe are dominated by a younger stellar population than all other classes of CCSNe. Our findings corroborate the notion that low metallicity and young age play an important role in the formation of SLSN progenitors.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Leloudas, Giorgos0000-0002-8597-0756
Wright, Angus H.0000-0001-7363-7932
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, Shri R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Quimby, Robert M.0000-0001-9171-5236
Sullivan, Mark0000-0001-9053-4820
Strothjohann, Nora Linn0000-0002-4667-6730
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
Ben-Ami, Sagi0000-0001-6760-3074
Bianco, Federica0000-0003-1953-8727
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Fraser, Morgan0000-0003-2191-1674
Fremling, Christoffer U.0000-0002-4223-103X
Horesh, Assaf0000-0002-5936-1156
Johansson, Joel0000-0001-5975-290X
Kelly, Patrick L.0000-0003-3142-997X
Knežević, Sladjana0000-0003-1416-8069
Maguire, Kate0000-0002-9770-3508
Papadogiannakis, Semeli0000-0003-0783-3323
Petrushevska, Tanja0000-0003-4743-1679
Rubin, Adam0000-0003-4557-0632
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Yang, Yi0000-0002-9024-4150
Adams, Scott M.0000-0001-5855-5939
Bufano, Filomena0000-0002-3429-2481
Foley, Ryan J.0000-0002-2445-5275
Green, Yoav0000-0002-0809-6575
Harmanen, Jussi0000-0001-8242-4090
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Hook, Isobel M.0000-0002-2960-978X
Hosseinzadeh, Griffin0000-0002-0832-2974
Howell, D. Andrew0000-0003-4253-656X
Kong, Albert K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Kotak, Rubina0000-0001-5455-3653
Matheson, Thomas0000-0001-6685-0479
McCully, Curtis0000-0001-5807-7893
Milisavljevic, Dan0000-0002-0763-3885
Pan, Yen-Chen0000-0001-8415-6720
Poznanski, Dovi0000-0003-1470-7173
Shivvers, Isaac0000-0003-3373-8047
van Velzen, Sjoert0000-0002-3859-8074
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 August 13; revised 2021 April 15; accepted 2021 April 21; published 2021 August 10. We thank the referee for a careful reading of the manuscript and for helpful comments that improved this paper. We thank Nino Cucchiara, Thomas de Jaeger, Harald Ebeling, David Levitan, Bruce Margon, Jon Mauerhan, Jacob Rex, David Sand, Jeffrey M. Silverman, Vicky Toy, and Brad Tucker for performing some of the observations, and Ido Irani and Maryam Modjaz for valuable discussions. I.A. is a CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholar in the Gravity and the Extreme Universe Program and acknowledges support from that program, from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement 852097), from the Israel Science Foundation (grants 2108/18 and 2752/19), from the United States—Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), and from the Israeli Council for Higher Education Alon Fellowship. J.S.B. was partially supported by a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Data-Driven Discovery grant. The UCSC team is supported in part by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) grant NNG17PX03C, the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and by a fellowship from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to R. J. Foley. A.V.F. acknowledges support from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and the U.C. Berkeley Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (in which he is a Miller Senior Fellow). M.F. is supported by a Royal Society—Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. A.G.-Y.'s research is supported by the EU via ERC grant 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; A.G.-Y. is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. A.Y.Q.H. was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship under grant DGE1144469 and by the GROWTH project funded by the NSF under PIRE grant 1545949. D.A.H., G.H., and C.M. were supported by NSF grant AST-1313484. M.M.K. acknowledges support by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the NSF under PIRE Grant No. 1545949. S.K. was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through contract 451-03-68/2020/14/20002 made with the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade. G.L. is supported by a research grant (19054) from VILLUM FONDEN. R.L. is supported by a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship within the Horizon 2020 European Union (EU) Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020-MSCA-IF-2017-794467). K.M. acknowledges funding from EU H2020 ERC grant 758638. T.P. acknowledges the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (grants I0-0033, P1-0031, J1-8136, and Z1-1853). S.S. gratefully acknowledges support provided by the Feinberg Graduate School at the Weizmann Institute, Israel. A.H.W. is supported by a European Research Council Consolidator Grant (770935). The Palomar Transient Factory project is a scientific collaboration among the California Institute of Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, the Oskar Klein Center, the Weizmann Institute of Science, the TANGO Program of the University System of Taiwan, and the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe. LANL participation in iPTF is supported by the US Department of Energy as a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. This work makes use of data from the Las Cumbres Observatory network. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. The data presented herein were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the NSF. We thank the staff of the various observatories at which data were obtained for their excellent assistance. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the US Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS website is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration, including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the PanSTARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, NASA under grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the NSF under grant AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE). This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by NASA and the NSF. This publication also makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by NASA. The LBNL Physics Division is supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Science High Energy Physics. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231, provided staff, computational resources, and data storage for this project. The Computational HEP program in the Department of Energy's Science Office of High Energy Physics provided resources through the "Cosmology Data Repository" project (grant #KA2401022). Software: Astropy v3.2.3 (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013; 2018), Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis (FSPS; Conroy et al. 2009), High Order Transform of Psf ANd Template Subtraction v5.1.11 (Hotpants; Becker 2015), IRAF (Tody 1986), LAMBDAR (Wright et al. 2016), Prospector v0.3 (Leja et al. 2017), python-fsps (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2014) scikit-learn v0.21.2 (Pedregosa et al. 2011), Software for Calibrating AstroMetry and Photometry (SCAMP; Bertin 2006) v2.0.4, Source Extractor v2.19.5 (Bertin & Arnouts 1996), Supernova Identification v5.0 (Blondin & Tonry 2007), Superfit v3.5 (Howell et al. 2005).
Group:Astronomy Department, Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)852097
Israel Science Foundation2108/18
Israel Science Foundation2752/19
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Council for Higher Education (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)51-03-68/2020/14/20002
Marie Curie Fellowship794467
European Research Council (ERC)758638
Slovenian Research AgencyI0-0033
Slovenian Research AgencyP1-0031
Slovenian Research AgencyJ1-8136
Slovenian Research AgencyZ1-1853
European Research Council (ERC)770935
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)KA2401022
Subject Keywords:Supernovae; Core-collapse supernovae; Galaxies; Galactic and extragalactic astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668); Core-collapse supernovae (304); Galaxies (573); Galactic and extragalactic astronomy (563)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200916-112847454
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Steve Schulze et al 2021 ApJS 255 29
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105411
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 Sep 2020 20:24
Last Modified:16 Aug 2021 17:02

Repository Staff Only: item control page