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GOODS-ALMA: The slow downfall of star-formation in z = 2-3 massive galaxies

Franco, M. and Elbaz, D. and Zhou, L. and Magnelli, B. and Schreiber, C. and Ciesla, L. and Dickinson, M. and Nagar, N. and Magdis, G. and Alexander, D. and Béthermin, M. and Demarco, R. and Daddi, E. and Wang, T. and Mullaney, J. and Sargent, M. and Inami, H. and Shu, X. and Bournaud, F. and Chary, R. and Ferguson, H. and Finkelstein, S. L. and Giavalisco, M. and Gómez-Guijarro, C. and Iono, D. and Juneau, S. and Lagache, G. and Lin, L. and Motohara, K. and Okumura, K. and Pannella, M. and Papovich, C. and Pope, A. and Rujopakarn, W. and Silverman, J. and Xiao, M. (2020) GOODS-ALMA: The slow downfall of star-formation in z = 2-3 massive galaxies. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 643 . Art. No. A30. ISSN 0004-6361.

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We investigate the properties of a sample of 35 galaxies, detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.1 mm in the GOODS-ALMA field (area of 69 arcmin², resolution = 0.60″, rms ≃ 0.18 mJy beam⁻¹). Using the ultraviolet-to-radio deep multiwavelength coverage of the GOODS–South field, we fit the spectral energy distributions of these galaxies to derive their key physical properties. The galaxies detected by ALMA are among the most massive at z = 2−4 (M_(⋆, med) = 8.5 × 10¹⁰ M_⊙) and they are either starburst or located in the upper part of the galaxy star-forming main sequence. A significant portion of our galaxy population (∼40%), located at z ∼ 2.5 − 3, exhibits abnormally low gas fractions. The sizes of these galaxies, measured with ALMA, are compatible with the trend between the rest-frame 5000 Å size and stellar mass observed for z ∼ 2 elliptical galaxies, suggesting that they are building compact bulges. We show that there is a strong link between star formation surface density (at 1.1 mm) and gas depletion time: The more compact a galaxy’s star-forming region is, the shorter its lifetime will be (without gas replenishment). The identified compact sources associated with relatively short depletion timescales (∼100 Myr) are the ideal candidates to be the progenitors of compact elliptical galaxies at z ∼ 2.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Franco, M.0000-0002-3560-8599
Elbaz, D.0000-0002-7631-647X
Zhou, L.0000-0002-7052-266X
Magnelli, B.0000-0002-6777-6490
Schreiber, C.0000-0003-0942-5198
Dickinson, M.0000-0001-5414-5131
Nagar, N.0000-0001-6920-662X
Magdis, G.0000-0002-4872-2294
Alexander, D.0000-0002-5896-6313
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Demarco, R.0000-0003-3921-2177
Daddi, E.0000-0002-3331-9590
Wang, T.0000-0003-3729-0139
Mullaney, J.0000-0002-3126-6712
Sargent, M.0000-0003-1033-9684
Inami, H.0000-0003-4268-0393
Shu, X.0000-0002-7020-4290
Bournaud, F.0000-0002-5743-0250
Chary, R.0000-0001-7583-0621
Ferguson, H.0000-0001-7113-2738
Finkelstein, S. L.0000-0001-8519-1130
Giavalisco, M.0000-0002-7831-8751
Gómez-Guijarro, C.0000-0002-4085-9165
Iono, D.0000-0002-2364-0823
Juneau, S.0000-0002-0000-2394
Lagache, G.0000-0003-1492-2519
Lin, L.0000-0001-7218-7407
Motohara, K.0000-0002-0724-9146
Pannella, M.0000-0003-3738-3976
Papovich, C.0000-0001-7503-8482
Pope, A.0000-0001-8592-2706
Rujopakarn, W.0000-0002-0303-499X
Silverman, J.0000-0002-0000-6977
Additional Information:© 2020 M. Franco et al. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 30 April 2020; Accepted 31 August 2020; Published online 27 October 2020. We thank the anonymous referee for the insightful comments and suggestions that improved the clarity and quality of this work. M.F. acknowledges support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) (grant number ST/R000905/1). B.M. acknowledges support from the Collaborative Research Centre 956, sub-project A1, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) – project ID 184018867. L.Z. acknowledges the support from the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFA0402704, No. 2018YFA0404502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grants 11825302, 11733002 and 11773013) and China Scholarship Council (CSC). R.D. gratefully acknowledges support from the Chilean Centro de Excelencia en Astrofísica y Tecnologías Afines (CATA) BASAL grant AFB-170002. GEM acknowledges support from the Villum Fonden research grant 13160 “Gas to stars, stars to dust: tracing star formation across cosmic time”, the Cosmic Dawn Center of Excellence funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the ERC Consolidator Grant funding scheme (project ConTExt, grant number No. 648179). MP is supported by the ERC-StG “ClustersXCosmo”, grant agreement 71676. DMA acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/P000541/1; ST/T000244/1). This work was supported by the Programme National Cosmology et Galaxies (PNCG) of CNRS/INSU with INP and IN2P3, co-funded by CEA and CNES. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00543.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/R000905/1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)956/A1
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2018YFA0404502
National Natural Science Foundation of China11825302
National Natural Science Foundation of China11733002
National Natural Science Foundation of China11773013
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Danish National Research FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)648179
European Research Council (ERC)71676
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/P000541/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/T000244/1
Programme National Cosmologie et Galaxies (PNCG)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National du Patrimoine (INP)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)184018867
Subject Keywords:galaxies: high-redshift – galaxies: evolution – galaxies: star formation – galaxies: active – galaxies: fundamental parameters – submillimeter: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200916-112920087
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:GOODS-ALMA: The slow downfall of star formation in z = 2–3 massive galaxies. M. Franco, D. Elbaz, L. Zhou, B. Magnelli, C. Schreiber, L. Ciesla, M. Dickinson, N. Nagar, G. Magdis, D. M. Alexander, M. Béthermin, R. Demarco, E. Daddi, T. Wang, J. Mullaney, M. Sargent, H. Inami, X. Shu, F. Bournaud, R. Chary, R. T. Coogan, H. Ferguson, S. L. Finkelstein, M. Giavalisco, C. Gómez-Guijarro, D. Iono, S. Juneau, G. Lagache, L. Lin, K. Motohara, K. Okumura, M. Pannella, C. Papovich, A. Pope, W. Rujopakarn, J. Silverman and M. Xiao. A&A, 643 (2020) A30; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105420
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Sep 2020 21:16
Last Modified:29 Oct 2020 21:10

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