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A Large Fraction of Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors Experience Elevated Mass Loss Shortly Prior to Explosion

Bruch, Rachel J. and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Schulze, Steve and Yaron, Ofer and Yang, Yi and Soumagnac, Maayane and Rigault, Mickael and Strotjohann, Nora L. and Ofek, Eran O. and Sollerman, Jesper and Masci, Frank J. and Barbarino, Cristina and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Fremling, Christoffer and Perley, Daniel and Nordin, Jakob and Cenko, S. Bradley and Adams, S. and Adreoni, Igor and Bellm, Eric C. and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Bulla, Mattia and Burdge, Kevin and De, Kishalay and Dhawan, Suhail and Drake, Andrew J. and Duev, Dmitry A. and Dugas, Alison and Graham, Matthew and Graham, Melissa L. and Irani, Ido and Jencson, Jacob and Karamehmetoglu, Emir and Kasliwal, Mansi and Kim, Young-Lo and Kulkarni, Shrinivas and Kupfer, Thomas and Liang, Jingyi and Mahabal, Ashish and Miller, A. A. and Prince, Thomas A. and Riddle, Reed and Sharma, Y. and Smith, Roger and Taddia, Francesco and Taggart, Kirsty and Walters, Richard and Yan, Lin (2021) A Large Fraction of Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors Experience Elevated Mass Loss Shortly Prior to Explosion. Astrophysical Journal, 912 (1). Art. No. 46. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abef05.

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Spectroscopic detection of narrow emission lines traces the presence of circumstellar mass distributions around massive stars exploding as core-collapse supernovae. Transient emission lines disappearing shortly after the supernova explosion suggest that the material spatial extent is compact and implies an increased mass loss shortly prior to explosion. Here, we present a systematic survey for such transient emission lines (Flash Spectroscopy) among Type II supernovae detected in the first year of the Zwicky Transient Facility survey. We find that at least six out of ten events for which a spectrum was obtained within two days of the estimated explosion time show evidence for such transient flash lines. Our measured flash event fraction (>30% at 95% confidence level) indicates that elevated mass loss is a common process occurring in massive stars that are about to explode as supernovae.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bruch, Rachel J.0000-0001-8208-2473
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
Yang, Yi0000-0002-9024-4150
Soumagnac, Maayane0000-0001-6753-1488
Rigault, Mickael0000-0002-8121-2560
Strotjohann, Nora L.0000-0002-4667-6730
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Barbarino, Cristina0000-0002-3821-6144
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Perley, Daniel0000-0001-8472-1996
Nordin, Jakob0000-0001-8342-6274
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Adams, S.0000-0001-5855-5939
Adreoni, Igor0000-0002-8977-1498
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Blagorodnova, Nadia0000-0003-0901-1606
Bulla, Mattia0000-0002-8255-5127
Burdge, Kevin0000-0002-7226-836X
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Dhawan, Suhail0000-0002-2376-6979
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Dugas, Alison0000-0001-7344-0208
Graham, Matthew0000-0002-3168-0139
Graham, Melissa L.0000-0002-9154-3136
Irani, Ido0000-0002-7996-8780
Jencson, Jacob0000-0001-5754-4007
Karamehmetoglu, Emir0000-0001-6209-838X
Kasliwal, Mansi0000-0002-5619-4938
Kim, Young-Lo0000-0002-1031-0796
Kulkarni, Shrinivas0000-0001-5390-8563
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Mahabal, Ashish0000-0003-2242-0244
Miller, A. A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Prince, Thomas A.0000-0002-8850-3627
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Sharma, Y.0000-0003-4531-1745
Smith, Roger0000-0001-7062-9726
Taddia, Francesco0000-0002-2387-6801
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Walters, Richard0000-0002-1835-6078
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 October 8; revised 2021 March 7; accepted 2021 March 14; published 2021 May 4. AGY's research is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative, Minerva and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Kimmel Center for planetary science, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; AGY is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. The ztfquery code was funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 759194—USNAC, PI: Rigault). The ZTF forced-photometry service was funded under the Heising-Simons Foundation grant #12540303 (PI: Graham). Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin 48 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. The data presented here were obtained [in part] with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. A.A.M. is funded by the LSST Corporation, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation in support of the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program; he also receives support as a CIERA Fellow by the CIERA Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University). Based on observations obtained at the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's NOIRLab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. on behalf of the Gemini Observatory partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2013-2016) under grant agreement No. 312430 (OPTICON).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)759194
Heising-Simons Foundation12540303
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
LSSTC Institutional MembersUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)312430
Subject Keywords:Type II supernovae; Massive stars; Flash spectra; Transient sources; Stellar mass loss; Observational astronomy
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Type II supernovae (1731); Massive stars (732); Flash spectra (541); Transient sources (1851); Stellar mass loss (1613); Observational astronomy (1145)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200916-112934888
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Rachel J. Bruch et al 2021 ApJ 912 46
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105424
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Sep 2020 19:56
Last Modified:05 May 2021 21:07

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