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The Zwicky Transient Facility Bright Transient Survey. II. A Public Statistical Sample for Exploring Supernova Demographics

Perley, Daniel A. and Fremling, Christoffer and Sollerman, Jesper and Miller, Adam A. and Dahiwale, Aishwarya S. and Sharma, Yashvi and Bellm, Eric C. and Biswas, Rahul and Brink, Thomas G. and Bruch, Rachel J. and De, Kishalay and Dekany, Richard and Drake, Andrew J. and Duev, Dmitry A. and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Goobar, Ariel and Graham, Matthew J. and Graham, Melissa L. and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Irani, Ido and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kim, Young-Lo and Kulkarni, S. R. and Mahabal, Ashish and Masci, Frank J. and Modak, Shaunak and Neill, James D. and Nordin, Jakob and Riddle, Reed L. and Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Strotjohann, Nora L. and Schulze, Steve and Taggart, Kirsty and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Walters, Richard and Yan, Lin (2020) The Zwicky Transient Facility Bright Transient Survey. II. A Public Statistical Sample for Exploring Supernova Demographics. Astrophysical Journal, 904 (1). Art. No. 35. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abbd98.

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We present a public catalog of transients from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Bright Transient Survey, a magnitude-limited (m < 19 mag in either the g or r filter) survey for extragalactic transients in the ZTF public stream. We introduce cuts on survey coverage, sky visibility around peak light, and other properties unconnected to the nature of the transient, and show that the resulting statistical sample is spectroscopically 97% complete at <18 mag, 93% complete at <18.5 mag, and 75% complete at <19 mag. We summarize the fundamental properties of this population, identifying distinct duration–luminosity correlations in a variety of supernova (SN) classes and associating the majority of fast optical transients with well-established spectroscopic SN types (primarily SN Ibn and II/IIb). We measure the Type Ia SN and core-collapse (CC) SN rates and luminosity functions, which show good consistency with recent work. About 7% of CC SNe explode in very low-luminosity galaxies (M_i > −16 mag), 10% in red-sequence galaxies, and 1% in massive ellipticals. We find no significant difference in the luminosity or color distributions between the host galaxies of SNe Type II and SNe Type Ib/c, suggesting that line-driven wind stripping does not play a major role in the loss of the hydrogen envelope from their progenitors. Future large-scale classification efforts with ZTF and other wide-area surveys will provide high-quality measurements of the rates, properties, and environments of all known types of optical transients and limits on the existence of theoretically predicted but as yet unobserved explosions.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemIntearctive data catalog
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Fremling, Christoffer0000-0002-4223-103X
Sollerman, Jesper0000-0003-1546-6615
Miller, Adam A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Sharma, Yashvi0000-0003-4531-1745
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Biswas, Rahul0000-0002-5741-7195
Brink, Thomas G.0000-0001-5955-2502
Bruch, Rachel J.0000-0001-8208-2473
De, Kishalay0000-0002-8989-0542
Dekany, Richard0000-0002-5884-7867
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Goobar, Ariel0000-0002-4163-4996
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Graham, Melissa L.0000-0002-9154-3136
Ho, Anna Y. Q.0000-0002-9017-3567
Irani, Ido0000-0002-7996-8780
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kim, Young-Lo0000-0002-1031-0796
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Mahabal, Ashish0000-0003-2242-0244
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Modak, Shaunak0000-0002-8532-827X
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Nordin, Jakob0000-0001-8342-6274
Riddle, Reed L.0000-0002-0387-370X
Soumagnac, Maayane T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Strotjohann, Nora L.0000-0002-4667-6730
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Taggart, Kirsty0000-0002-5748-4558
Tzanidakis, Anastasios0000-0003-0484-3331
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 September 2; revised 2020 September 28; accepted 2020 September 29; published 2020 November 19. We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the worldwide community of observational astronomers in obtaining and reporting classification spectra of transients within this sample. We specifically acknowledge observing and classification contributions from Yuhan Yao, Viraj Karambelkhar, Igor Andreoni, and Alison Dugas (Palomar/Keck), WeiKang Zheng, Kishore Patra, and Andrew Hoffman (Lick), Brigitta Spiőcz, Zach Golkhou, Keaton Bell, and James Davenport (APO). We also acknowledge the contributions of BTS and other ZTF alert-stream scanners, including Raphael Baer-Way, Teagan Chapman, Matt Chu, Asia deGraw, Suhail Dhawan, Alison Dugas, Nachiket Girish, Samantha Goldwasser, Andrew Hoffman, Connor Jennings, Evelyn Liu, Emily Ma, Emma McGinness, Yukei Murakami, Derek Perera, Druv Punjabi, James Sunseri, Abel Yagubyan, and Erez Zimmerman. We thank Christopher Cannella and Ashot Bagdasaryan for developing and managing the GROWTH Marshal, and Peter Nugent and Eran Ofek for useful comments on this manuscript. We also thank Suvi Gezari and Sjoert van Velzen for discussions on the nature of AT2019cmw and AT2019fdr. We thank the anonymous referee for useful comments. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin 48-inch Telescope and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. The SED Machine is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant 1106171. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. Some of the work associated with this paper was carried out at the Aspen Center for Physics (ACP). The ACP is supported by NSF grant PHY-1607611. This work was partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation. This work was supported by the GROWTH (Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen) project funded by the NSF under PIRE grant 1545949. GROWTH is a collaborative project among California Institute of Technology (USA), University of Maryland College Park (USA), University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (USA), Texas Tech University (USA), San Diego State University (USA), University of Washington (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan), National Central University (Taiwan), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (India), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India), Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), The Oskar Klein Centre at Stockholm University (Sweden), Humboldt University (Germany), Liverpool John Moores University (UK), and University of Sydney (Australia). A.A.M. is funded by the LSST Corporation, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation in support of the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program; he also receives support as a CIERA Fellow by the CIERA Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University). A.G.-Y.'s research is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; A.G.-Y. is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. Y.-L.K. has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 759194—USNAC). A.V.F.'s group is grateful for funding from the TABASGO Foundation, the Christopher J. Redlich Fund, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). M.L.G. acknowledges support from the DiRAC Institute in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Washington. The DiRAC Institute is supported through generous gifts from the Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences, and the Washington Research Foundation. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the NSF, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, University of Cambridge, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, NASA under grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the NSF under grant AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Some of the data that contributed to this paper were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. Facilities: PO:1.2 m - , PO:1.5 m - , Liverpool:2 m - , ARC - , Shane - , Hale - , Keck:I (LRIS). -
Group:Astronomy Department, Zwicky Transient Facility, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
LSSTC Institutional MembersUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)759194
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Washington Research FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Supernovae ; Catalogs ; Surveys ; Transient sources ; Time domain astronomy
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668); Catalogs (205); Surveys (1671); Transient sources (1851); Time domain astronomy (2109)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200916-112938445
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Daniel A. Perley et al 2020 ApJ 904 35
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105425
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:17 Sep 2020 14:19
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:42

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