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Planck 2018 results. XI. Polarized dust foregrounds

Akrami, Y. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Ballardini, M. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Basak, S. and Benabed, K. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Bracco, A. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Carron, J. and Chiang, H. C. and Combet, C. and Crill, B. P. and de Bernardis, P. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Di Valentino, E. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Falgarone, E. and Fantaye, Y. and Ferrière, K. and Finelli, F. and Forastieri, F. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frolov, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Génova-Santos, R. T. and Ghosh, T. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Guillet, V. and Handley, W. and Hansen, F. K. and Herranz, D. and Huang, Z. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jones, W. C. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kiiveri, K. and Kim, J. and Krachmalnicoff, N. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Le Jeune, M. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Lindholm, V. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Ma, Y.-Z. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Matarrese, S. and McEwen, J. D. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschênes, M.-A. and Molinari, D. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Natoli, P. and Pagano, L. and Paoletti, D. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Polenta, G. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renzi, A. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Ruiz-Granados, B. and Salvati, L. and Sandri, M. and Savelainen, M. and Scott, D. and Soler, J. D. and Spencer, L. D. and Tauber, J. A. and Tavagnacco, D. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Trombetti, T. and Valiviita, J. and Vansyngel, F. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wehus, I. K. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2020) Planck 2018 results. XI. Polarized dust foregrounds. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 641 . Art. No. A11. ISSN 0004-6361.

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The study of polarized dust emission has become entwined with the analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization in the quest for the curl-like B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves and the low-multipole E-mode polarization associated with the reionization of the Universe. We used the new Planck PR3 maps to characterize Galactic dust emission at high latitudes as a foreground to the CMB polarization and use end-to-end simulations to compute uncertainties and assess the statistical significance of our measurements. We present Planck EE, BB, and TE power spectra of dust polarization at 353 GHz for a set of six nested high-Galactic-latitude sky regions covering from 24 to 71% of the sky. We present power-law fits to the angular power spectra, yielding evidence for statistically significant variations of the exponents over sky regions and a difference between the values for the EE and BB spectra, which for the largest sky region are α_(EE) = −2.42 ± 0.02 and α_(BB) = −2.54 ± 0.02, respectively. The spectra show that the TE correlation and E/B power asymmetry discovered by Planck extend to low multipoles that were not included in earlier Planck polarization papers due to residual data systematics. We also report evidence for a positive TB dust signal. Combining data from Planck and WMAP, we have determined the amplitudes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of polarized foregrounds, including the correlation between dust and synchrotron polarized emission, for the six sky regions as a function of multipole. This quantifies the challenge of the component-separation procedure that is required for measuring the low-ℓ reionization CMB E-mode signal and detecting the reionization and recombination peaks of primordial CMB B modes. The SED of polarized dust emission is fit well by a single-temperature modified black-body emission law from 353 GHz to below 70 GHz. For a dust temperature of 19.6 K, the mean dust spectral index for dust polarization is β_d^P = 1.53±0.02. The difference between indices for polarization and total intensity is β_d^P−β_d^I = 0.05±0.03. By fitting multi-frequency cross-spectra between Planck data at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, we examine the correlation of the dust polarization maps across frequency. We find no evidence for a loss of correlation and provide lower limits to the correlation ratio that are tighter than values we derive from the correlation of the 217- and 353 GHz maps alone. If the Planck limit on decorrelation for the largest sky region applies to the smaller sky regions observed by sub-orbital experiments, then frequency decorrelation of dust polarization might not be a problem for CMB experiments aiming at a primordial B-mode detection limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≃ 0.01 at the recombination peak. However, the Planck sensitivity precludes identifying how difficult the component-separation problem will be for more ambitious experiments targeting lower limits on r.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Akrami, Y.0000-0002-2407-7956
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Additional Information:© 2020 Planck Collaboration. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 11 January 2018; Accepted 14 September 2018; Published online 11 September 2020. Planck ( is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) with instruments provided by two scientific consortia funded by ESA member states and led by Principal Investigators from France and Italy, telescope reflectors provided through a collaboration between ESA and a scientific consortium led and funded by Denmark, and additional contributions from NASA (USA). The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES, and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA, and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF, and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at This research has received funding by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-17-CE31-0022).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National du Patrimoine (INP)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Spanish Supercomputing Network (RES)UNSPECIFIED
Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SER)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-17-CE31-0022
Subject Keywords:dust, extinction – ISM: magnetic fields – ISM: structure – cosmic background radiation – polarization – submillimeter: diffuse background
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200921-103133721
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Official Citation:Planck 2018 results - XI. Polarized dust foregrounds. Planck Collaboration, Y. Akrami, et. al., A&A, 641 (2020) A11; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105454
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Sep 2020 16:49
Last Modified:22 Sep 2020 16:49

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