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Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009–2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope

Wielgus, Maciek and Akiyama, Kazunori and Blackburn, Lindy and Chan, Chi-kwan and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Fish, Vincent L. and Issaoun, Sara and Johnson, Michael D. and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Lu, Ru-Sen and Pesce, Dominic W. and Wong, George N. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Broderick, Avery E. and Chael, Andrew and Chatterjee, Koushik and Gammie, Charles F. and Georgiev, Boris and Hada, Kazuhiro and Loinard, Laurent and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Plambeck, Richard and Weintroub, Jonathan and Dexter, Matthew and MacMahon, David H. E. and Wright, Melvyn and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barausse, Enrico and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chatterjee, Shami and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dzib, Sergio A. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Fomalont, Ed and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Galison, Peter and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gold, Roman and Gómez, José L. and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Inoue, Makoto and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Junhan and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lico, Rocco and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Lonsdale, Colin and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Marchili, Nicola and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Musoke, Gibwa and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Nathanail, Antonios and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Park, Jongho and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Piétu, Vincent and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Ryan, Benjamin R. and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Tazaki, Fumie and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Traianou, Efthalia and Trippe, Sascha and Tsuda, Shuichiro and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Wardle, John and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wu, Qingwen and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guangyao and Zhao, Shan-Shan and Zhu, Ziyan (2020) Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009–2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope. Astrophysical Journal, 901 (1). Art. No. 67. ISSN 1538-4357.

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The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz observations performed in 2017 April. Additional observations are required to investigate the persistence of the primary image feature—a ring with azimuthal brightness asymmetry—and to quantify the image variability on event horizon scales. To address this need, we analyze M87* data collected with prototype EHT arrays in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. While these observations do not contain enough information to produce images, they are sufficient to constrain simple geometric models. We develop a modeling approach based on the framework utilized for the 2017 EHT data analysis and validate our procedures using synthetic data. Applying the same approach to the observational data sets, we find the M87* morphology in 2009–2017 to be consistent with a persistent asymmetric ring of ~40 μas diameter. The position angle of the peak intensity varies in time. In particular, we find a significant difference between the position angle measured in 2013 and 2017. These variations are in broad agreement with predictions of a subset of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that quantifying the variability across multiple observational epochs has the potential to constrain the physical properties of the source, such as the accretion state or the black hole spin.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Doeleman, Sheperd S.0000-0002-9031-0904
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Chael, Andrew0000-0003-2966-6220
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
Georgiev, Boris0000-0002-3586-6424
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
Markoff, Sera0000-0001-9564-0876
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Weintroub, Jonathan0000-0002-4603-5204
Wright, Melvyn0000-0002-9154-2440
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Baczko, Anne-Kathrin0000-0003-3090-3975
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Barausse, Enrico0000-0001-6499-6263
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Carlstrom, John E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chen, Ming-Tang0000-0001-6573-3318
Chen, Yongjun0000-0001-5650-6770
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Cui, Yuzhu0000-0001-6311-4345
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Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Dzib, Sergio A.0000-0001-6010-6200
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fromm, Christian M.0000-0002-1827-1656
Galison, Peter0000-0002-6429-3872
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Gold, Roman0000-0003-2492-1966
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.0000-0001-9395-1670
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Ho, Paul0000-0002-3412-4306
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Chih-Wei L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Huang, Lei0000-0002-1923-227X
Inoue, Makoto0000-0001-5037-3989
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Jannuzi, Buell T.0000-0002-1578-6582
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-8685-6544
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra0000-0002-2662-3754
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Li, Yan-Rong0000-0001-5841-9179
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Lo, Wen-Ping0000-0003-1869-2503
Lobanov, Andrei P.0000-0003-1622-1484
Lonsdale, Colin0000-0003-4062-4654
MacDonald, Nicholas R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mao, Jirong0000-0002-7077-7195
Marchili, Nicola0000-0002-5523-7588
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Matthews, Lynn D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Menten, Karl M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Moscibrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Narayanan, Gopal0000-0002-4723-6569
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Ni, Chunchong0000-0003-1361-5699
Noutsos, Aristeidis0000-0002-4151-3860
Okino, Hiroki0000-0003-3779-2016
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Oyama, Tomoaki0000-0003-4046-2923
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
Preciado-López, Jorge A.0000-0002-4146-0113
Psaltis, Dimitrios0000-0003-4058-2837
Pu, Hung-Yi0000-0001-9270-8812
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Raymond, Alexander W.0000-0002-5779-4767
Rezzolla, Luciano0000-0002-1330-7103
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Rogers, Alan0000-0003-1941-7458
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Rose, Mel0000-0002-2016-8746
Rottmann, Helge0000-0003-1799-8228
Roy, Alan L.0000-0002-1931-0135
Ruszczyk, Chet0000-0001-7278-9707
Ryan, Benjamin R.0000-0001-8939-4461
Rygl, Kazi L. J.0000-0003-4146-9043
Sánchez, Salvador0000-0002-8042-5951
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Schuster, Karl-Friedrich0000-0003-2890-9454
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Zhiqiang0000-0003-3540-8746
Small, Des0000-0003-3723-5404
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, Jason0000-0003-1938-0720
Tazaki, Fumie0000-0003-0236-0600
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
Tilanus, Remo P. J.0000-0002-6514-553X
Titus, Michael0000-0002-3423-4505
Toma, Kenji0000-0002-7114-6010
Torne, Pablo0000-0001-8700-6058
Traianou, Efthalia0000-0002-1209-6500
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
van Bemmel, Ilse0000-0001-5473-2950
van Langevelde, Huib Jan0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Wardle, John0000-0002-8960-2942
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Wex, Norbert0000-0003-4058-2837
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wu, Qingwen0000-0003-4773-4987
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Young, André0000-0003-0000-2682
Young, Ken0000-0002-3666-4920
Younsi, Ziri0000-0001-9283-1191
Yuan, Feng0000-0003-3564-6437
Yuan, Ye-Fei0000-0002-7330-4756
Zensus, J. Anton0000-0001-7470-3321
Zhao, Guangyao0000-0002-4417-1659
Zhao, Shan-Shan0000-0002-9774-3606
Zhu, Ziyan0000-0003-4463-5828
Additional Information:© 2020. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2020 June 4; revised 2020 July 28; accepted 2020 August 2; published 2020 September 23. The authors of the present paper thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496); the Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project, supported by the European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action under grant agreement 731016; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT, Chile, via PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt projects 1171506 and 3190878, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007); Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects 104497, 275201, 279006, 281692); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico—Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA—UNAM, project IN112417); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, and 107-2119-M-110-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC17K0649 and Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1312651, AST-1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1715061, AST-1615796, AST-1716327, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China; the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Russian Science Foundation (grant 17-12-01029); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (contract 89233218CNA000001)); the Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Università e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA (CUP C52I13000140001); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (, Calcul Quebec (, and Compute Canada ( We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01154.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with the National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrófisica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico), and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA). The IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany), and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR- 1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under an open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with hydrogen masers. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
European Research Council (ERC)731016
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)ACT172033
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171506
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)31140007
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)281692
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM)IN112417
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Jansky FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
National Radio Astronomy ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SYS008
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Youth Thousand Talents Program of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)SPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01029
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098915-B-C21
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)UNSPECIFIED
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
Ministero dell'Istruzione, Università e Ricerca (MIUR)CUP C52I13000140001
European Research Council (ERC)730562 RadioNet
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Compute OntarioUNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Black holes ; Galaxy accretion disks ; Galaxy accretion ; Supermassive black holes ; Active galactic nuclei ; Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei ; Very long baseline interferometry ; Astronomy data modeling ; Radio interferometry
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Black holes (162); Galaxy accretion disks (562); Galaxy accretion (575); Supermassive black holes (1663); Active galactic nuclei (16); Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (2033); Very long baseline interferometry (1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200925-135426346
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Maciek Wielgus et al 2020 ApJ 901 67
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105572
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:28 Sep 2020 14:27
Last Modified:28 Sep 2020 14:27

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