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Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole

Psaltis, Dimitrios and Medeiros, Lia and Christian, Pierre and Özel, Feryal and Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Boland, Wilfred and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew A. and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gómez, José L. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jiang, Wu and Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra and Johnson, Michael D. and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Junhan and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lico, Rocco and Liu, Jun and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and Mao, Jirong and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Mizuno, Yosuke and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Musoke, Gibwa and Mus Mejías, Alejandro and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Neri, Roberto and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Oyama, Tomoaki and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Park, Jongho and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Ryan, Benjamin R. and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Tazaki, Fumie and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Traianou, Efthalia and Trippe, Sascha and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Wardle, John and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zhao, Shan-Shan (2020) Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole. Physical Review Letters, 125 (14). Art. No. 141104. ISSN 0031-9007. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201001-125354379

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Abstract

The 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the central source in M87 have led to the first measurement of the size of a black-hole shadow. This observation offers a new and clean gravitational test of the black-hole metric in the strong-field regime. We show analytically that spacetimes that deviate from the Kerr metric but satisfy weak-field tests can lead to large deviations in the predicted black-hole shadows that are inconsistent with even the current EHT measurements. We use numerical calculations of regular, parametric, non-Kerr metrics to identify the common characteristic among these different parametrizations that control the predicted shadow size. We show that the shadow-size measurements place significant constraints on deviation parameters that control the second post-Newtonian and higher orders of each metric and are, therefore, inaccessible to weak-field tests. The new constraints are complementary to those imposed by observations of gravitational waves from stellar-mass sources.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.125.141104DOIArticle
https://physics.aps.org/articles/v13/s128Featured InPhysics: Synopsis
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Carlstrom, John E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chael, Andrew A.0000-0003-2966-6220
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Chen, Ming-Tang0000-0001-6573-3318
Chen, Yongjun0000-0001-5650-6770
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Cui, Yuzhu0000-0001-6311-4345
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia0000-0002-9945-682X
Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fromm, Christian M.0000-0002-1827-1656
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Ho, Paul0000-0002-3412-4306
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Chih-Wei L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Huang, Lei0000-0002-1923-227X
Inoue, Makoto0000-0001-5037-3989
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Jannuzi, Buell T.0000-0002-1578-6582
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-5476-731X
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra0000-0002-2662-3754
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Li, Yan-Rong0000-0001-5841-9179
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Lo, Wen-Ping0000-0003-1869-2503
Lobanov, Andrei P.0000-0003-1622-1484
Lonsdale, Colin0000-0003-4062-4654
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
Mao, Jirong0000-0002-7077-7195
Markoff, Sera0000-0001-9564-0876
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Moscibrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Narayanan, Gopal0000-0002-4723-6569
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Noutsos, Aristeidis0000-0002-4151-3860
Okino, Hiroki0000-0003-3779-2016
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Oyama, Tomoaki0000-0003-4046-2923
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
Preciado-López, Jorge A.0000-0002-4146-0113
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Raymond, Alexander W.0000-0002-5779-4767
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Rogers, Alan0000-0003-1941-7458
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Rose, Mel0000-0002-2016-8746
Rottmann, Helge0000-0003-1799-8228
Roy, Alan L.0000-0002-1931-0135
Ruszczyk, Chet0000-0001-7278-9707
Ryan, Benjamin R.0000-0001-8939-4461
Rygl, Kazi L. J.0000-0003-4146-9043
Sánchez, Salvador0000-0002-8042-5951
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Schuster, Karl-Friedrich0000-0003-2890-9454
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Zhiqiang0000-0003-3540-8746
Small, Des0000-0003-3723-5404
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, Jason0000-0003-1938-0720
Tazaki, Fumie0000-0003-0236-0600
Titus, Michael0000-0002-3423-4505
Torne, Pablo0000-0001-8700-6058
Traianou, Efthalia0000-0002-1209-6500
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
van Bemmel, Ilse0000-0001-5473-2950
van Langevelde, Huib Jan0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Wardle, John0000-0002-8960-2942
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Weintroub, Jonathan0000-0002-4603-5204
Wex, Norbert0000-0003-4058-2837
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Wu, Qingwen0000-0003-4773-4987
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Young, André0000-0003-0000-2682
Young, Ken0000-0002-3666-4920
Younsi, Ziri0000-0001-9283-1191
Yuan, Feng0000-0003-3564-6437
Yuan, Ye-Fei0000-0002-7330-4756
Zhao, Shan-Shan0000-0002-9774-3606
Additional Information:© 2020 American Physical Society. Received 26 May 2020; accepted 31 August 2020; published 1 October 2020. The authors of the present paper thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (Projects No. 274477, No. 284495, No. 312496); the Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project, supported by the European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action under Grant Agreement No. 731016; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (No. 60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT, Chile, via PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt Projects No. 1171506 and No. 3190878, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007); Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, Projects No. 104497, No. 275201, No. 279006, No. 281692); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM, project IN112417); the European Research Council Synergy Grant “BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes” (Grant No. 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Grants No. GBMF-3561, No. GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, Grants No. QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, No. QYZDJSSW-SYS008, No. ZDBS-LY-SLH011); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (Grants No. 18KK0090, No. JP18K13594, No. JP18K03656, No. JP18H03721, No. 18K03709, No. 18H01245, No. 25120007); the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, and 107-2119-M-110-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator Grant No. 80NSSC17K0649 and Hubble Fellowship Grant No. HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under Contract No. NAS5-26555); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grants No. 2016YFA0400704, No. 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, Grants No. AST-0096454, No. AST-0352953, No. AST-0521233, No. AST-0705062, No. AST-0905844, No. AST-0922984, No. AST-1126433, No. AST-1140030, No. DGE-1144085, No. AST-1207704, No. AST-1207730, No. AST-1207752, No. MRI-1228509, No. OPP-1248097, No. AST-1310896, No. AST-1312651, No. AST-1337663, No. AST-1440254, No. AST-1555365, No. AST-1715061, No. AST-1615796, No. AST-1716327, No. OISE-1743747, No. AST-1816420); the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 11573051, No. 11633006, No. 11650110427, No. 10625314, No. 11721303, No. 11725312, No. 11933007); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China; the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: Grants No. NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, No. 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (Grant No. 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under Grant No. 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 17-12-01029); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Grants No. AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, No. AYA2016-80889-P, No. PID2019-108995GB-C21); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucía (Grant No. P18-FR-1769), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Grant No. 2019AEP112); the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory [operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. DOE (Contract No. 89233218CNA000001)]; the Italian Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA (CUP C52I13000140001); the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF Grant No. ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF Grants No. DBI-0735191, No. DBI-1265383, and No. DBI-1743442. We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica, y Electronica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA). The IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain, is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant No. PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with hydrogen masers. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
European Research Council (ERC)731016
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)PIA ACT172033
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171506
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
BASAL-CATAAFB-170002
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)31140007
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)281692
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Jansky FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
National Radio Astronomy ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Key Research Program of Frontier SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJSSW-SYS008
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
NASA80NSSC17K0649
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
NASANAS5-26555
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSFAST-0096454
NSFAST-0352953
NSFAST-0521233
NSFAST-0705062
NSFAST-0905844
NSFAST-0922984
NSFAST-1126433
NSFAST-1140030
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
NSFAST-1207704
NSFAST-1207730
NSFAST-1207752
NSFMRI-1228509
NSFOPP-1248097
NSFAST-1310896
NSFAST-1312651
NSFAST-1337663
NSFAST-1440254
NSFAST-1555365
NSFAST-1715061
NSFAST-1615796
NSFAST-1716327
NSFOISE-1743747
NSFAST-1816420
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Youth Thousand Talents Program of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Spinoza PrizeSPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01029
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2019-108995GB-C21
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaP18-FR-1769
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas2019AEP112
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
Ministero dell'Istruzione, Università e Ricerca (MIUR)CUP C52I13000140001
European Research Council (ERC)730562 RadioNet
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
NASA ChandraTM6-17006X
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
NSFACI-1548562
NSFDBI-0735191
NSFDBI-1265383
NSFDBI-1743442
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
NSFPLR-1248097
NSFPHY-1125897
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Issue or Number:14
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201001-125354379
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201001-125354379
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:105725
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Oct 2020 21:03
Last Modified:01 Oct 2020 21:03

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